# Chapter 5: The Periodic Table

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Chapter 5: The Periodic Table
5.2 The Modern Periodic Table 5.3 Representative groups

The Modern Periodic Table
Section 5.2 The Modern Periodic Table

The Modern Periodic Table
“Periodic” - Repeating patterns Listed in order of increasing number of protons (atomic #) Properties of elements repeat Periodic Law- when elements arranged by increasing number of protons, properties repeat in pattern

Columns in the Periodic Table
-vertical (up & down) -called groups or families -#ed 1-18 or 1A through 8A -elements in same family have similar properties

Rows in the Periodic Table
-horizontal (left – right) -called a period -properties change greatly across period -first element in period is very active metal -last element in most periods is noble gas -7 periods (number them on your periodic table)

6 C Carbon 12.01 For example: Carbon has atomic # 6
Element Key Important information about an element is given in each square of the periodic table: its atomic number chemical symbol element name average atomic mass 6 C Carbon 12.01 For example: Carbon has atomic # 6 (or has 6 protons), an average atomic mass of and a symbol of C

Atomic Mass Atomic mass is a value that depends on the masses of an element’s isotopes and how common they are in nature. Two isotopes of copper 72% copper-63 28% copper-65 Makes the average amu

Determining Average Atomic Mass
Copper-63 (mass is 63) is 72% abundant Copper-65 (mass is 65) is 28% abundant Convert percent to a decimal (move decimal 2 places left) Multiply decimal by the mass Add the two together 63*0.72 = *0.28 = 18.2 = 63.5 average atomic mass

Metals Most solids (Hg is liquid) Luster – shiny.
Ductile – drawn into thin wires. Malleable – hammered into sheets. Conductors of heat and electricity. Include transition metals – “bridge” between elements on left & right of table

Non-Metals Properties are generally opposite of metals
Poor conductors of heat and electricity Low boiling points Many are gases at room temperature Solid, non-metals are brittle (break easily) Chemical properties vary

Metalloids stair-step pattern
Have properties similar to metals and non-metals Ability to conduct heat and electricity varies with temp Better than non-metals but not metals

Variation Across a Period: Left to Right
Physical and Chemical properties Atomic size decreases Metallic properties decrease Ability to lose an electron decreases Ability to gain electrons increases

Representative Groups
Section 5.3 Representative Groups Hip Hop Classroom The Elements

What are Valence electrons?
outermost e-’s Responsible for chem props Elements in same group… same # of VE ALL atoms want full outer energy level (usually 8 VE) To get full outer energy level, some elements: lose e- (metals) gain e- (non-metals) share electrons (some non-metals & metalloids)

Introducing the ten major groups (families) on the modern Periodic Table:

Alkali Metals - 1 valence electron (VE)
potassium - 1 valence electron (VE) - soft, silver-white, shiny metals never found pure most reactive metals Reactivity increases down group reactivity increases

Label the Alkali Metals to your PT

Alkaline Earth Metals - 2 VE - not as reactive as alkali metals
magnesium - 2 VE - not as reactive as alkali metals often mixed with Al forms strong/light weight alloys

Alkaline Earth Metals Magnesium Calcium
Used to make steel (light metal w/o losing strength) photosynthesis (chlorophyll) Calcium bones & teeth Chalk, limestone, pearls, plaster

Label the Alkaline Earth Metals to your PT

Boron Family -3 VE Boron Hard/brittle never found pure in nature
in borax...used to make detergents & cosmetics

Boron Family 13 Al Aluminum 26.98 Aluminum
most abundant metal in earth’s crust important metal for industry light, strong, slow to corrode 13 Al Aluminum 26.98

Label the Boron Family on your PT

Carbon Family 4 VE Can gain 4 e-, lose 4 e-, or share e-
silicon 4 VE Can gain 4 e-, lose 4 e-, or share e- Most compounds in body contain C Si 2nd most abundant element in Earth’s crust Si used to tip saw blades

Label the Carbon Family on your PT

Nitrogen Family 5 VE Tend to gain 3 e- N and P used in fertilizers
Arsenic 5 VE Tend to gain 3 e- N and P used in fertilizers P on tips of matches

Label the Nitrogen Family on your PT

Oxygen Family 6 VE Tend to gain 2 e- O very abundant element
sulfur Oxygen Family 6 VE Tend to gain 2 e- O very abundant element S used in fertilizers O needed for digestion

Label the Oxygen Family on your PT

Halogen Family (“salt-former”)
-7 VE -most active nonmetals -never found pure in nature -react with alkali metals easily (forms salts) -F most active halogen

F compounds in toothpaste Cl kills bacteria
Halogens cont… bromine F compounds in toothpaste Cl kills bacteria I keeps thyroid gland working properly

Label the Halogen Group on your Periodic Table

The Noble Gases (Inert Gases)
Neon - non-reactive outermost e- shell is full (8 VE) In “neon” lights -in earth’s atmosphere (less than 1%)

Label the Noble Gases on your Periodic Table

Transition Metals ductile, malleable, conductors
mercury Almost all solids at room temp (Hg exception) ductile, malleable, conductors VE varies Less Reactive than Groups 1 & 2 Fe, Co, and Ni produce magnetic field

Label the Transition Metals on your periodic table

Rare Earth Elements Lanthanide series (period 6)
uranium Lanthanide series (period 6) Actinide Series (period 7) Some radioactive Separated from table to make easy to read/print silver, silvery-white, or gray metals. Conduct electricity

Label the Lanthanide Series on your PT

Label the Actinide Series on your PT

You may watch more videos about the elements at:
or sing along at: elemental funkiness - Mark Rosengarten hip hop classroom