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Today 3/31 Circuits Current Potential (same as always) Capacitance (energy and in circuits) HW:3/31 “Circuits 4” Due Thursday 4/3 Exam 3 Thursday, 4/3 5-7 pm 116 Witmer Other room to be announced.

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Lab: RC Circuits RC Circuits (circuits with resistor and a capacitor in series) Current flows only while the capacitor charges up. The time to charge up depends on the product RC. Can also dischargethe capacitor C R

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Exam 3 Parallel plate problem Conceptual circuit problem (bulbs) Resistor circuit problem (find current and voltage) Capacitor problem (with resistors?)

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Loop Rule (voltage) The sum of all voltages around any closed loop is always zero. (what goes up must come down) or V A,A = 0 !!must keep track of ups and downs!! (+/-) Across capacitors, resistors, and batteries

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Kirchhoff’s Rules, Junction The sum of all currents at any junction is zero. (what goes in must come out) !!must keep track of ins and outs!! (+/-) Current only flows into and out of capacitors while charging and discharging. No current after enough time has passed through capacitors.

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Homework R 1 =20 100 R 1 =20 30 F 15V

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Capacitors with Resistors Will current flow when the switch is closed? 12 V 6F6F 66 6F6F Yes, but only for an instant until the capacitor is charged. Yes, but it will take longer to charge the capacitor.

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Capacitors with Resistors Describe current and voltage long after the switch has been closed. 12 V 6F6F 66 6F6F No current, 12 V across the capacitor. No current, 12 V across the capacitor, zero V across the resistor. Loop rule still applies! V = IR for resistors still applies!

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Capacitors with Resistors Describe current and voltage long after the switch has been closed. 12 V 6F6F 22 2 Amps through the battery and both resistors. 4 V across 2 and 8 V across the capacitor and 4 Loop rule still applies! V = IR for resistors still applies! 44

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Charging Capacitors in Series The same amount of charge that enters one side of a capacitor, leaves the other.

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Charging Capacitors in Series The same amount of charge that enters one side of a capacitor, leaves the other.

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Charging Capacitors in Series The same amount of charge that enters one side of a capacitor, leaves the other.

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Charging Capacitors in Series The same amount of charge that enters one side of a capacitor, leaves the other.

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Charging Capacitors in Series The same amount of charge that enters one side of a capacitor, leaves the other.

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Charging Capacitors in Series The same amount of charge that enters one side of a capacitor, leaves the other.

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Charging Capacitors in Series The same amount of charge that enters one side of a capacitor, leaves the other.

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Charging Capacitors in Series The same amount of charge that enters one side of a capacitor, leaves the other. Capacitors in series will always have the same charge on them. (what goes around, comes around) This is true even if they are not of equal capacitance! Current will flow until the sum of the voltages across the capacitors equals the battery voltage. (loop rule)

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Capacitors in Series Find the charge on each capacitor and the voltage across each capacitor. The battery is 30V. 25 F 50 F They are in series so the charge on each is the same. Capacitance means “coulombs per volt” so the one with twice the capacitance has half the volts. 1 2 V 1 = 20V, V 2 = 10V, Q 1 = 500 C, Q 2 = 500 C

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Capacitors in Parallel Find the charge on each capacitor and the voltage across each capacitor. The battery is 30V. They are in parallel so the voltage across each is the same, each equal to 30V. Q 1 = 750 C, Q 2 = 1500 C 25 F50 F 12

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Series and Parallel Objects in series have the same current through them. This is why capacitors in series always have the same charge on them. Objects in parallel have the same voltage across them.

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Ohm’s law, loops & junctions V = IR true for entire circuits as well as individual elements. Voltage changes summed around any closed loop equal zero. Current divides and combines at junctions like water in pipes. What enters the junction must also leave.

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