 # Series and Parallel Circuits. Ohm’s Law I = V / R Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854) I= Current (Amperes) (amps) V= Voltage (Volts) R= Resistance (ohms)

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Series and Parallel Circuits

Ohm’s Law I = V / R Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854) I= Current (Amperes) (amps) V= Voltage (Volts) R= Resistance (ohms)

How you should be thinking about electric circuits: Voltage: a force that pushes the current through the circuit (in this picture it would be equivalent to gravity)

Resistance: friction that impedes flow of current through the circuit (rocks in the river) How you should be thinking about electric circuits:

Current: the actual “substance” that is flowing through the wires of the circuit (electrons!) How you should be thinking about electric circuits:

Would This Work?

The Central Concept: Closed Circuit

Simple Circuits  Series circuit All in a row 1 path for electricity 1 light goes out and the circuit is broken  Parallel circuit Many paths for electricity 1 light goes out and the others stay on

Circuits  Can either be series or parallel.

Series  Current only takes one path for electrons  Current flows through every part of the circuit

Lights in a Series

Series  If you add a resistor (like another light): Total resistance goes UP since all the current has must go through each resistor.

Adding Resistors to Series: Current in the circuit will go DOWN (lights will dim) If you remove a light bulb or one burns out—all go out!

Current in Series  Current is the same at all points

Voltage in Series  Voltage is reduced by each resistance – voltage drop

Resistance in Series  Add up all resistors to get total Total resistance will go up because all of the current must go through each resistor.

Sample Problem #1  Draw a series circuit with two 1.5 V batteries, 3 resistors, and a current of 0.5 A. 1. What is the total voltage of the circuit? 2. What is the resistance of each resistor? 3. What is the voltage drop across each resistor? Label on your circuit.

Parallel Circuits  Has at least one point where current divides  More than one path for current to flow  Paths are also known as branches

Lights in Parallel

Parallel:  If you add a resistor: Total resistance goes down Total current goes up when you add another path

Removing a Light Bulb  If you remove a light bulb or one burns out, the others stay on because the circuit is still closed.

Current in Parallel  Current flows into a branching point, the same total current must flow out again  Current depends on resistance in each branch

Voltage in Parallel  Voltage is the same across each branch – because each branch is on the same wire

Resistance in Parallel  Calculate current in each branch based on resistance in each branch by using Ohm’s Law

Practice problem #2  Draw a parallel circuit with two resistors (one on each branch) and a 12 V battery. 1. What is the voltage through each resistor? 2. What is the current flowing through each branch?

Toll Booth Explanation  Adding toll booths in series increases resistance and slows the current flow.  Adding toll booths in parallel lowers resistance and increases the current flow.

Batteries in Series and Parallel:

 In series—The voltage is increased.  In parallel—No change in voltage; these batteries will last longer!

One More FINAL Thing:  Two Types of Current:  DC—Direct Current— produced by solar cells and chemical cells (batteries)  Current only flows in one direction.

2 nd type of current:  AC—Alternating Current  Current flows back and forth (alternates)  Found in homes  Generators produce AC current

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