4Look familiar?OK students – you win! Vocab IS important
5EFL and ESP in the Gulf in the 1980s Working without a planSeemed to be no researchYet research there wasFirst action, classroom, piecemealThen sustained, empirical, theory based… which led to The New Vocabulary that we here celebrateThesis: The Arab learner forced us to invent the New Vocabulary
6Wot new vocab? Some principles we now take for granted Lexical knowledge is the strongest predictor of reading ability (and inability) Lexis is not a filler for syntactic slots but rather syntax is an emergent property of lexis Some zones of lexis are more important than others for different tasksDifferent degrees are lexical knowledge are needed for different tasksLexical knowledge does not come for free in L2 as in L1Lexical acquisition in L2 requires more exposures than natural input can possibly provideLexical processing and acquisition are not identical across orthographies
7So what was the old vocab? Principles more implicit than explicitModern versions of applied linguistics emerge 1960s/70sBurgeoning ESL industry needs a rationaleAfter supposed demise of audio-lingualismA.k.a. Behaviorist learning theoryThis early idea-borrowing from quasi-related disciplines(1) General Linguistics(2) L1 reading theoryNeither with much space for vocabularyBoth with strong assumptions about it
8(1) General linguistics Child acquisition of L1 syntax is the great human achievementWhile extensive vocabularies can be learned by animals- chimpanzees (3000 items)- dogs (200 items)
11Early applied linguists, naturally, attempted to “apply linguistics” Signs of “universal grammar” and “the language acquisition device” were dutifully unearthed in the FL classroom by researchers…Vocab book publishers took a 20-year breakNo big classroom vocab book between Barnard (1972) and Redman/Ellis (1991)Reading was demoted to an uninteresting speech add-onBut a problem: EFL/ESP learners are mainly here for reading!Solution: So borrow reading rationale from L1Big error – a dark hole we are still climbing out of
12(2) L1 reading theory Kenneth Goodman (1967) 1970s - one dominant L1 theory- reading-for-meaning- holistic- top-down- “psycholinguistic” guessing gameKenneth Goodman (1967)Frank Smith (1971)All the needed vocabulary can be pleasurably acquired through inference from contextThere is no need, it is even wrong, to teach itThese ideas got imported into L2 “somewhat uncritically”(Grabe 1991)
13(2) L1 reading theoryGuessing Game is clearly an idea for young, high-SES L1 learnersIf you look close, no very convincing evidence for it even in L1Stanovich 1980, 1991RaynerDecades of phonics v. whole-language warsNonetheless Reading-as-Guessing was quickly imported into L2 thinking1970s and 1980s
14(2) L1 reading theory Goodman (1973) extends guessing game to L2 “Universals” of readingReading in a second language = reading in firstTransfer of reading ability from L1 to L2 is automaticVocabulary will grow through guessing, in L2 as L12006 – these ideas remain dominantEvery TESL teacher training program has a teaching grammar course, while few have a teaching vocabulary course…
15(2) L1 reading theory…despite >50% of class time invariably spent explaining words!Emperor's clothes syndrome?(See what you are told to see)Fortunately it was not shared by our learnersWho sensibly annotated every text they couldn’t readAdmittedly overdoing it…And ignored our advice to “loosen up & take chances”Or by independent L2 research that soon emergeddeveloped within specifically L2 termsborrowing carefully from L1 thinking
161990s - L2 gets its own reading theory! First question: Is there really auto-transfer of L1 reading skills to L2?Alderson (84) takes the trouble to investigateFinding: Transfer is not automaticL1 abilities + skills are inactive…(e.g., guessing of new words in context)Until a threshold of L2 knowledge has been crossedThe main plank in threshold?L2 vocabulary knowledge.So prior teaching is needed to enable guessing
171995-2005, more and more evidence for importance of lexis Syntax itself shown to require a lexical baseBates & Goodman (2001). On the inseparability of grammar and the lexiconKnowledge of syntax now seems rooted in properties of wordsA plank in the ‘lexical approach’“Language is grammaticalised lexis not lexicalised grammar”– Lewis (1993)
18How odd, in retrospect…To be teaching “word guessing skills” to folks with a only a handful of lexisTo be working a class through a grammar points conveyed via unknown vocabularyTo hand learners a reading text with every second word a look-upAlderson (84) began the spade work to get us out of this tunnelHad taught Arab learners for yearsAny coincidence?
19Gulf learner & old vocab What did vocab look like to the learner when vocab was not part of the plan?
20Reading task for intermediate learners – seem OK? The Observer newspaper recently showed how easy it is, given a suitable story and a smattering of jargon, to obtain information by bluff from police computers. Computer freaks, whose hobby is breaking into official systems, don't even need to use the phone. They can connect their computers directly with any database in the country. Computers do not alter the fundamental issues. But they do multiply the risks. They allow more data to be collected on more aspects of our lives, and increase both its rapid retrievability and the likelihood of its unauthorized transfer from one agency which might have a legitimate interest in it, to another which does not. Modern computer capabilities also raise the issue of what is known in the jargon as 'total data linkage' the ability, by pressing a few buttons and waiting as little as a minute, to collate all the information about us held on all the major government and business computers into an instant dossier on any aspect of our lives.Headway (Soars & Soars, 1991, p. 74)
27What blew the gaff on all this? Arrival of standard testingIELTS, even PETStudents in droves fail simplest reading testsBut with benefitsAction research projectsE.g. Informal vocab testingEvaluate teaching against testObserve / listen to students
28From a learnerDear N.,I heard that you are going to join the College of Commerce and Economics after you finish your high school. I have a lot to tell you about this college. The first and important thing is the PET test. You must pass this test so you can continue your studies in the College. The PET test is not easy as it seems. It is so difficult and we have to do a lot to pass it.... The English that we learned at school is too easy and it's nothing compared with the English in the University. Let me tell you about myself as an example.I thought that I knew English and really in the school I was from the three best students in the class in English. But here my English is nothing, then I thought I learned nine years English in the school but I don't have any knowledge and I don't know anything about real English. I really don't know the fault from who. ...Your friend, F.
29From a teacher Watching a biology lecture Biology lecturer teaching about hybridizationThe first time I gave a hybridization analogy, I talked about dogs, and then I switched to goats; and then it even dawned on me that some of them aren't going to be in touch with the fact that if you mix two different kinds of goats they come out looking in between, and I didn't know all the specific terms there, what their two different breeds of goats are called. You can talk about [mixing] colours, but a lot of them don't know their colours yet(Arden-Close, p. 258).
30From piecemeal action-research to sustained programs of research involving the Arab EFL learnerVOCAB SIZEAl-Hazemi (1993)PhD study validates vocab size instruments in GulfStill true? - see Al-GazetteLEARNING FROM CONTEXTLaufer et al (1985)Investigates supposed ease of contextual inferenceHorst et al (1998)Investigate contextual learning in an extended taskLaufer (1989)Investigates conditions of successful contextual inference
31From piecemeal action-research to sustained programs of research involving the Arab EFL learnerUNIVERSAL READING PROCESSESKoda (1989)Investigates reading in a new orthographyAbu-Rabia & Seigel (1995)Investigate unequal roles of context in reading English v. ArabicRandall & Meara (1988)Investigate differences in how Arabic and Roman words are perceived
33So the old vocabulary crumbles But in all this research into the Arabic-English interface… Do students get no benefits from their experience with Arabic? Haynes (1983) - Inferencing study - Clues in local v. global contexts - Four language groups Only Arabic group using global context
34But didn’t Laufer find Arab learner is poor inferencer But didn’t Laufer find Arab learner is poor inferencer? Yes, but also that 95% comprehension is the condition of inference Do our learners get anywhere near that in what we give them to read? Not so much So a vital strength never comes into play Even so, here is an extra twist on this one
35Headway text global VPIs not the same as local VPs
36Local inferencer will find an occasional useful context in this text E.g., New word embedded in 95%- known context Global inferencer will get no chance to use this skill in this text Materials and approaches need to compensate for difficulties of Arab learners but also build on their strengths
37Homegrown Solutions (1) Compensating and building on strengths AWL (2001) has its roots in vocab needs of Arab learner Jean Praninskas (1972) Mohsen Ghaddesy (1979) AUB - American University of Beirut Need for post-2000 vocab course Concern for coverage Now a big hit worldwide (Shows up as UWL=>AWL)
39Homegrown Solutions (2) Lextutor has its roots in needs of Arab learner www.lextutor.ca
40So returning to the point of departure Thesis: The Arab learner forced us to invent the New Vocabulary
41In conclusion The Arab learner helped us break out of a fairly un-useful approach to vocab inherited from linguistics and L1 reading And in retrospect, the Arab learner was just a high-profile representative of most EFL learners
42In conclusion L2 vocab will not happen by itself up to 95% coverage Textbooks alone cannot be relied on Sufficient coverage and and repetition of high frequency words must be planned for at ground level Tools for doing this 1. Testing 2. Computational analysis of materials