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Presentation on theme: "IMPORTANT US SUPREME COURT DECISIONS"— Presentation transcript:


2 Marbury v. Madison (1803) federal powers Checks and Balances
Judiciary Act of 1789 part of the act was unconstitutional established Judicial Review

3 Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) federal powers Federalism
Who has jurisdiction over interstate trade/commerce? The National Government has power over individual states. The National Government has the right to regulate interstate trade/commerce.

4 McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
federal powers Federalism Does the state have a right to tax a federal agency? National agencies are immune to state taxes (9-0) The Federal Government has power over the State Governments.

5 New Jersey v TLO (1985) school searches
4th Amendment-search and seizure Can schools search without a warrant? Yes, if the school has probable cause-protection for all students (5-4) Schools do not need a search warrant if there is reasonable suspicion of a crime.

6 Vernonia SD v. Acton (1995) school searches
4th Amendment-search and seizure Does random drug testing of student athletes violate unreasonable searches? drug testing is constitutional-protection for all students (6-3) Schools have the right to maintain student safety in an educational setting.

7 Engel v. Vitale (1962) school prayer 1st Amendment-freedom of religion
Does daily prayer violate students’ freedom of religion? Yes, it was a violation of separation of church and state (6-1) Public schools cannot mandate prayer in school.

8 Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) civil rights
human rights v. property rights Were freed blacks citizens? Blacks were property, not citizens (7-2) even free blacks were not citizens therefore did not have citizen rights

9 Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) civil rights
13th/14th Amendments-equal rights/protection Is segregation on public transportation constitutional? separate but equal is constitutional (7-1) separate facilities by races were OK

10 Brown v. BOE of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
civil rights 14th Amendment-equal rights/protection Is school segregation constitutional? by definition, separate is not equal (9-0) public facilities have to be integrated

11 Parents Involved in Community School v. Seattle SD (2007)
civil rights 14th Amendment-equal rights/protection Is a racial based tie breaker against the equal protection of the law? racial tie breakers are not constitutional (5-4) high schools cannot use race to determine demographic goals/quotas

12 Korematsu v. US (1944) discrimination
5th/14th Amendments-due process and equal rights/protection Was the gov’t denying people’s rights by enacting internment camps? Korematsu’s rights were not violated (6-3) In times of conflict, the government may limit citizens’ rights.

13 University of CA Regents v. Bakke (1978)
discrimination 14th Amendment-equal rights/protection Can race be a factor for college admissions? Is affirmative action reverse discrimination? Bakke needs to be let in-affirmative action is a case-by-case decision (5-4) Bakke was admitted to the university

14 Mapp v. Ohio (1961) rights of the accused
4th Amendment-search and seizure Can courts ignore how evidence was obtained? No, the 4th Amendment should be protected (5-4) The police need to have a search warrant/probable cause to search.

15 Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) rights of the accused
6th Amendment-right to a lawyer Should a person accused of any crime have the right to a lawyer? Yes, Gideon should’ve had a lawyer (9-0) The accused have the right to a lawyer when they are arrested.

16 Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) rights of the accused
6th Amendment-right to a lawyer Should a lawyer be available during the interrogation process? Yes, Escobedo should have had a lawyer during his interrogation (5-4) The accused can have a lawyer present during all parts of her/his due process.

17 Miranda v. Arizona (1966) rights of the accused
5th/6th Amendments-self-incrimination and right to a lawyer When is a confession legal? Should people be aware of their rights when they are arrested? Yes, the rights of the accused need to be protected (5-4) “Miranda Rights” need to be read to and understood by the accused.

18 Nixon v. US (1974) separation of powers Checks and Balances
Did the government violate the president’s rights of power and confidentiality? President Nixon must turn over tapes to the US Congress (8-0) No one, including the president, is above the law.

19 Schenck v. US (1919) free speech 1st Amendment-freedom of speech
Does free speech include anti-war protests? No, certain rights are not absolute (9-0) During times of conflict, freedoms/liberties may be limited.

20 Tinker v. Des Moines SD (1969)
free speech 1st Amendment-freedom of speech Does free speech include political protests in school? freedom of speech is protected (7-2) Students may use free speech if it does not interfere with classes/other students.

21 Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier (1988)
free press 1st Amendment-freedom of the press Can school administrators censor the school newspaper? Yes, there are limits to our rights (5-3) Schools may limit freedoms if they are part of a school function.

22 Morse v. Frederick (2007) free speech 1st Amendment-freedom of speech
Does the 1st Amendment allow public schools to prohibit students from displaying drug messages at school events? freedom of speech may be limited (5-4) Schools can limit free speech at school sponsored events.

23 Roe v. Wade (1973) abortion 1st speech/4th privacy/5th private property/14th equal protection Does the 14th Amend. apply to a fetus? No, states cannot deny abortions in the first trimester (7-2) Abortion is legal and highly controversial.

24 Cruzan v. Department of Health (1990)
life support 14th Amendment-equal rights/protection Can a state refuse to terminate someone on life support? people do have the right to refuse medical treatment (6-3) People need to have their wished document (a Living Will).


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