2 Buttons: Description and Purpose A square or rectangular-shaped control with a label inside that indicates action to be accomplished.The label may be either text, graphics, or both.Graphics can represent an Icon or a symbol.PurposeTo start actions.To change properties.To display a pop-up menu.==> Alles, was sofort passieren soll.
3 Three types of Buttons Command buttons Bar buttons without labels Symbol buttons
4 Structure of Command Buttons Provide a rectangular shape with the label inscribed within it.Maintain consistency in style through an application.
5 Labels of Command Buttons Use standard button labels when available.Use single-word labels whenever possible.Use two-three words for clarity, if necessary.Use mixed-case letters with the first letter of each label word capitalized.Display labels:In the regular system font.In the same size font.Do not number labels.Center the label within the button borders leaving at least two pixels between the text and the button border.Provide consistency in button labeling across all screens.
6 Button size OK Cancel Help Color Palette >> OK Cancel Help Restrict the number of buttons to six for ever
7 Buttons: Location and Layout Maintain consistency in button location between windows.Never simply “fit-in” buttons in available space.If buttons are for exiting the dialog:Position centered and aligned horizontally at the bottom.If buttons are for invoking a dialog feature or expanding the dialog:Position centered and aligned vertically on the right side.If a button has a contingent relationship to another control:Position adjacent to the related control.If a button has a contingent relationship to a group of controls:Position at the bottom or to right of related controls to support a logical flowFor exiting and expanding/ invoking feature buttons, do not:Align with the other screen controls.Present displayed within a line border.Provide equal and adequate spacing between adjacent buttons.
8 Organization of Buttons Organize standard buttons in the manner recommended by the platform being used.For other buttons, organize in common and customary grouping schemes.For buttons ordered left to right, place most frequent actions to the left.For buttons ordered top to bottom, place most frequent actions at the top.Keep related buttons grouped together.Separate potentially destructive buttons from frequently chosen selections.Buttons found on more than one window should be consistently positioned.The orders should never change.For mutually exclusive actions, use two buttons, do not dynamically change the text.
9 Intent Indicators (1)When a button causes an action to be immediately performed:no intent indicator is necessary.ApplyWhen a button leads to a cascading dialog:Include an ellipsis (...) after the label.Open...When a button leads to a menu:Include a triangle pointing in the direction the menu will appear after the label.Menu >
10 Intent Indicators (2) When a button leads to an expanding dialog: Include a double arrow (>>) with the label:Options >>When a button contingent relationship to another control must be indicated:Include a single arrow (->) pointing at the control:<- Clear
11 Defaults (1)IntentWhen a window is first displayed, provide a default action, if practical.SelectionA default should be the most likely action:A confirmation.An application of the activity being performed.A positive action such as OK, unless the result is catastrophic.If a destructive action is performed (such as deletion), the default should be CANCEL.
12 Defaults (2) Presentation Indicate the default action by displaying the button with a bold or double border.ProceduresThe default can be changed as the user interacts with the window.When the user navigates to a button, it can temporarily become the default.Use the ENTER key to activate a default button.If another control requires use of the ENTER key, temporarily disable the default while the focus is on the other control.Permit double-clicking on a single selection control on a window to also carry out the default command.
13 Buttons - Sonstiges Beschleuniger anbieten Buttons dürfen beim Scrollen nicht verschwindenAusgewählte Buttons hervorhebennicht-verfügbare zurücktreten lassenAktivierte Buttons kennzeichnensolche mit Wiederholmöglichkeit besonders darstellen
14 Buttonbars/ Toolbars size (1) UsageTo provide easy access to most frequently used commands or options.To invoke a sub-application within an application.SizeButton.24 (w) by 22 (h) pixels including border.32 (w) by 30 (h) pixels inculding border.Larger buttons can be used on high resolution displays.
15 Buttonbars/ Toolbars size (2) Label.16 (w) by 16 (h) pixels.14 (w) by 24 (h) pixels.Default.Provide the smaller size as the default with a user option to change.ImageCenter image in button.
16 Organization and Location Separate potentially destructive buttons from frequently chosen selections.Permit user reconfiguration of button organization.LocationPosition main features and functions bar horizontally across top of window just below menu bar.Position sub-task and sub-features bars along sides of window.Permit the location of the bar to be changed by the user.Permit display of the bar to be turned on or off by the user.Provide access through standard menus.IundG:Anpassen - Befehle
17 Text Boxes Proper Usage Entry/Modification:Display/Read Only:InformationProper UsageMost useful for data that is:Unlimited in scope.Difficult to categorize.Of a variety of different lengths.When using a selection list is not possible
18 Selection Controls: Radio Buttons Description, Purpose A two-part control consisting of the following:Small circles, diamonds, or rectangles.Choice descriptions.When a choice is selected:The option is highlighted.Any existing choice is automatically un-highlighted and de-selected.PurposeTo set one of a small set of mutually exclusive options (2-8).IundG:Animationsfenster - zeitlicher Ablauf
19 Selection Controls: Radio Buttons Advantages/ Disadvantages + Easy to access choices.+ Easy to compare choices.+ Preferred by users.- Consume screen space.- Limited number of choices.
20 Radio Buttons: Proper Usage For setting attributes, properties, or values.For mutually exclusive choices (i.e., only one can be selected).Where adequate screen space is available.Most useful for data and choices that are:Discrete.Small and fixed in number.Not easily remembered.In need of a textual description to meaningfully describe the alternatives.Most easily understood when the alternatives may be seen together and compared to one another.Never changed in content.Do not use:For commands.Singly to indicate the presence or absence of a state.IundG:Vergleichskonzept - Listbox bei OPEN
21 Animationsfenster - zeitlicher Ablauf - Radio ButtonsDefaults, Accelerators and Captions should be used - also vertical structure and indication of non-available choices.LeftCenterRightDecimalBarAlignmentIundG:Animationsfenster - zeitlicher Ablauf -Verbessern
22 Check Boxes- Description & Purpose A two-part control consisting of:A square box.Choice text.Each option acts as a switch and can be either “on” or “off”.When an option is selected (on), a mark such as an “X” or “check” appears within the square box, or the box is highlighted in some other manner.Otherwise the square box is unselected or empty (off).Each box can be:Switched on or off independently.Used alone or grouped in sets.PurposeTo set one or more options as either on or off.
23 Check Boxes - Gestaltungshinweise Weitgehend analog zu Radio-Buttonsauch nur eine Check Box kann sinnvoll seinBeschreibung der Auswahlmöglichkeiten, Anordnung und Organisation sind bei Check Boxes und Radio Buttons gleichBei beiden Selektionsmechanismen:Defaults, nicht verfügbare Optionen und Beschleuniger beachten
24 Radio-Buttons and Check Boxes - Choice Description Provide meaningful, fully spelled-out choice descriptions clearly describing the values or effects set by the radio buttons.Display in a single line of text.Display using mixed-case letters with each significant word capitalized.Position descriptions to the right of the button / box. Separate by at least one space from the button.When a choice is conditionally unavailable for selection, display choice description grayed or dimmed.RADIO BUTTONS: Include a NONE choice if it adds clarity.
25 Structure (1) Provide groupings of related check boxes. A columnar orientation is the preferred manner of presentation for multiple related check boxes.Left-align the check boxes and choice descriptions.If vertical space on the screen is limited, orient the boxes horizontally.Provide adequate separation between boxes so that the buttons are associated with the proper description.A distance equal to three spaces is usually sufficient.BoldItalicUnderlineItalicUnderlineBold
26 Structure (2)Enclose the boxes in a border to visually strengthen the relationship they possess.BoldItalicUnderlineItalicUnderlineBold
27 Selection Method and Indication (1) PointingThe selection target area should be as large as possible.Include the check box and the choice description test.Highlight the selection choice in some visually distinctive way when the cursor’s resting on it and the choice is available for selection.This cursor should be as long as the longest choice description plus one space at each end. Do no place the cursor over the check box.BoldItalicUnderlineIundG:Extra- SymbolleisteZurücksetzen Problem
28 Selection Method and Indication (2) ActivationWhen a choice is selected, distinguish it visually from the nonselected choices.A check box should be filled in, or made to look depressed, or higher, through use of shadow.DefaultsIf a check box is displayed which contains a choice previously selected or default choice, display the selected choice as set in the control.
29 Check Boxes: Mixed value State When a check box represents a value, and a multiple selection encompasses multiple value occurences set in both the on and off state, display the check box in a mixed value state.Fill the check box with another easily differentiable symbol or pattern.Toggle the check box as follows:Selection 1: Set the associated value for all elements. Fill the check box with an „x“ or „check.“Selection 2: Unset the value for all associated elements. Blank the check box.Selection 3: Return all elements to their original state. Fill the check box with the mixed value symbol or pattern.BoldItalicUnderlineIundG:Zeichen
30 DefaultsWhen the control possesses a state or affect that has been predetermined to have a higher probability of selection than the others, designate it as the default and display it’s button filled in.When the control includes choices whose states cannot be predetermined, display all the buttons without setting a dot, or in indetermined state.When a multiple selection includes choices whose states vary, display the buttons in another unique manner, or in the mixed value state.When a control possesses a state or affect that has been preset, designate it as the default and display it’s check box marked.
31 Palettes Description & Purpose A control consisting of a series of graphical alternatives. The choices themselves are descriptive, being comprised of colors, patterns, or impages.In addition to being a standard screen control, a palette may also be presented on a pull-down or pop-up menu, or a buttonbar.PurposeTo set one of a series of mutually exclusive options that are presented graphically or pictorially.
32 Palettes Advantages/ Disadvantages + Pictures aid comprehension.+ Easy to compare choices.+ Usually consume less screen space than textual equivalents.- Limited number of choices can be displayed.- Difficult to organize for scanning efficiency.- Requires skill and time to design meaningful and attractive graphical representations.
33 Palettes Proper Usage (1) For setting attributes, properties, or values.For mutually exclusive choices (i.e., only one can be selected).Where adequate screen space is available.Most useful for data and choices that are:Discrete.Frequently selected.Limited in number.Variable in number.Most easily understood when the alternatives may be seen together and compared to one another.Most meaningfully represented pictorially or by example.Can be clearly represented pictorially.Rarely changed in content.
34 Palettes Proper Usage (2) Do not use:Where the alternatives cannot be meaningfully and clearly represented pictorially.Where words are clearer than images.Where the choices are going to change.
35 Palettes Graphical Representation Provide meaningful, accurate, and clear illustrations or representations of choices.Create images large enough to:Clearly illustrate the available alternatives.Permit ease in pointing and selecting.Create images of equal size.Always test illustrations before implementing.
36 List Boxes Description and Purpose A permanently displayed box-shaped control containing a list of attributes or objects from which:A single selection is made (mutually exclusive), orMultiple selections are made (non-mutually exclusive)The choice may be text, pictorial representations, or graphics.Selections are made by using a mouse to point and click.Capable of being scrolled to view large lists of choices.No text entry field exists in which to type text.A list box may be associated with a text box control where the selected choice may be displayed or an item added to the list.PurposeTo select from a large set of choices that may be:Mutually exclusive options.Non-mutually exclusive options.
37 List Boxes Advantages/ Disadvantages + Unlimited number of choices+ Reminds users of available options.+ Box always visible.- Consumes screen space.- Often requires an action (scrolling) to see all list choices.- The list content may change, making it hard to find items.- The list may be ordered in an unpredictable way, making it hard to find items
38 List Size Not limited in size. Present all available alternatives. Require no more than 40 pagedowns to search a list.If more, provide method for using search criteria or scoping the options.
39 Box Size (1)Must be long enough to display six to eight choices without requiring scrolling.Exceptions:If screen space constraints exist, the box may be reduced in size to display at least three items.If it is the major control within a window, the box may be larger.If more items are available than are visible in the box, provide vertical scrolling to display all items.AustraliaCanadaEnglandFranceGermanyNew ZealandNetherlands
40 Box Size (2)Must be wide enough to display the longest possible choiceWhen box cannot be made wide enough to display the longest entry:Make it wide enough to permit entries to be distinguishable, or,Break the long entries with an ellipsis (...) in the middle, or,Provide horizontal scrolling.
41 Single-Selection List Box vs. Multiple-Selection List Box AustraliaCanadaEnglandFranceGermanyNew ZealandNetherlandsDestination:Single-Selection List BoxMultiple-Selection List BoxBreadCerealDairy FoodsDessertsDrinksFruitMeat, Fish and PoultryVegetablesGroceries:
42 Single-Selection List Box - Design Guidelines (1) - Related Text BoxIf presented with an associated text box control:Position the list box below, and as close as possible to, the text box.The list box caption should be worded similarly to the text box caption.AustraliaCanadaEnglandFranceGermanyNew ZealandNetherlandsDestination:
43 Single-Selection List Box - Design Guidelines (2) - If the related text box and the list box are very in close proximity, the caption may be omitted from the list box.Use the same background color for the text box as is used in the list box.AustraliaCanadaEnglandFranceGermanyNew ZealandNetherlandsDestination:
44 Ergänzungen einer Multiple-Selection List Box BreadCerealDairy FoodsDessertsDrinksFruitMeat, Fish and PoultryVegetablesGroceries:3selectedA summary list box.Position it to the right of the list box.Use the same colors for the summary list box as are used in the list box.A display-only text control indicating how many choices have been selected.Position it justified upper-right above the list box.Select All / Deselect ButtonsProvide command buttons to accomplish fast “select all” and “deselect” actions, when these actions must be frequently or quickly performed.Groceries Selected:BreadDairy FoodsMeat, Fish and Poultry
45 Weitere Differenzierung der Auswahlmöglichkeiten Drop-DownPop-UpEingabeauswahlNicht möglichmöglichNur über SelektionÜber Selektion und Text gemäß VorgabeSelektionund beliebigerTextDrop-DownPop-Up List Boxes(S )List Boxes(S )IundG:Schrift - Selektion und beliebiger Text bei Schriftgröße und bei SchriftartSpin Boxes(S )Attached Combination Boxes(S )IundG:Zoom-Einstellung - Entertaste beachtenDrop-Down/ Pop-UpCombination Boxes(S )Spin Boxes ?Attached Combination Boxes?
46 Drop-Down vs. Pop-Up Prompt Button Provide a visual cue that a list box is hidden by including a downward pointing arrow, or other meaningful image, to the right of the selection field.Position the button directly against, or within, the selection field.Horizontal:LeftHorizontal:SetRightCenteredLeftFullSport:
47 Spin Buttons Description & Purpose A single-line field followed by two small, vertically-arranged buttons.The top button has an arrow pointing up.The bottom button has an arrow pointing down.Selection/ entry is made by:Using the mouse to point at one of the directional buttons and clicking. Items will change by one unit or step with each click.Keying a value directly into the field itselfPurposeTo make a selection by either scrolling through a small set of meaningful predefined choices or typing text.Nachteil: Auswahl schwer vergleichbar
48 Proper Usage Most useful for data and choices that are: Discrete Infrequently selectedWell know, easily rememberedOrdered in predicted fashionInfrequently changedSmall in numberFixed or variable in ist length
49 Attached Combination Boxes Description & Purpose A single rectangular box beneath which is a larger rectangular box displaying a list of optionsThe text box permits a choice to be keyed within itThe larger box contains a list of mutually exclusive choices. One can be selected for placement in the entry fieldInformation keyed does not necessarily have to match the list itemsPurposeTo allow either typed entry in a text box or selection from a list of options in a permanently displayed list box attached to the text box.
50 Proper Usage Most useful for data and choices that are: Best represented textually.Somewhat familiar or known.Ordered in a non-predictable fashion.Frequently changed.Large in number.Variable or fixed in list length.
51 Weitere Differenzierung der Auswahlmöglichkeiten Drop-DownPop-UpEingabeauswahlNicht möglichmöglichNur über SelektionÜber Selektion und Text gemäß VorgabeSelektionund beliebigerTextDrop-DownPop-Up List Boxes(S )List Boxes(S )Spin Boxes(S )Attached Combination Boxes(S )Drop-Down/ Pop-UpCombination Boxes(S )Spin Boxes ?Attached Combination Boxes?
52 Sliders - Description - A scale exhibiting more or less of a quality on a continuum.Includes the following:A shaft or bar.A range of values with appropriate labels.An arm indicating relative setting through its location on the shaft.Optionally, a pair of buttons to permit incremental movement of the slider armOptionally, a text box for typing and/ or displaying an exact value.Optionally, a detent position for special values.Selected by using the mouse to:Drag a slider across the scale until the desired value is reached.Point at the buttons at one end of the scale and clicking to change the value.Keying a value in the associated text box.
53 Sliders - Purpose -To make a setting when a continuous qualitative adjustment is acceptable, it is useful to see the current value relative to the range of possible values.
54 Slider Shaft Arm Detent Buttons Temparature:65FahrenheitScaleText BoxIundG:Canvas-Strichelung
55 Slider Proper Usage To set an attribute. For mutually exclusive choices.When an object has a limited range of possible settings.When the range of values is continuous.When graduations are relatively fine.When the choices can increase or decrease in some well-known, predictable, and easily understood way.When a spatial representation enhances comprehension and interpretation.When using a slider provides sufficient accuracy.
56 Slider Scales Show a complete range of choices. Mark the low, intermediate, and high ends of the scale.Provide scale interval markings, where possible.Provide consistent increments.Permit the user to change the units of measure.If the precise value of a quantity represented is important, display the value set in an adjacent text box.
57 Slider ButtonsProvide slider buttons to permit movement by the smallest increment.If the user cannot change the value shown in a slider, do not display slider buttons
58 Slider DetentsProvide detents to set values that have special meaning.Permit the user to change the detent value.
59 Notebook Description & Purpose A series of windows resembling a bound notebook.May contain tabbed divider pages creating sections.Navigation is permitted between pages or sections.PurposeTo present information that can be logically organized into pages or sections within the same window.IundG:Word - Voreinstellungen
60 Notebook Section & Pages Place related information within a section.PagesOrder meaningfully.Arrange pages so they appear to go deeper, left-to-right and top-to-bottom.Provide pages of equal size.If there is more than one page in a section, provide page numbers in a consistent location within the page.
61 Notebook TabsProvide fixed-width tabs for sections of related information.Provide either text or graphic labels.If text:Use system fonts.Use mixed-case, capitalizing each significant word.Assign a mnemonic for keyboard access.If graphics, provide tooltip controls.Center the labels within the tabs.Restrict tabs to only one row.Arrange tabs so that they appear to go deeper, left-to-right and top-to-bottom.
62 Scroll Bars - Purpose, Advantages/ Disadvantages and Proper-Use To find and view information that takes more space than the allotted display space.Advantages/ Disadvantages+ Permits viewing data of unlimited size.- Consumes screen space.- Can be cumbersome to operate.Proper UseWhen more information is available than the window space for displaying it.Do not use to set values.
63 Richtlinie für Scrollbars (1) Scroll Slider Box or HandleTo indicate the location and amount of information being viewed, provide a slider box or handle.Constructed of a movable and sizable open area of the scroll area displayed in a technique that contrasts with the scroll area.Indicate by its position, spatially, the relative location in the file of the information being viewed.Indicate by its size, proportionately, the percentage of the available information in the file being viewed.Scroll Directional ArrowsTo indicate the direction that scrolling may be performed, directional arrows should be provided.Construct of arrows in small boxes with backgrounds contrasting with the scroll area.
64 Richtlinie für Scrollbars (2) SelectionWhen the slider box/ handle has been selected, highlight it in some visually distinctive way.LocationPosition a vertically (top-to-bottom) scroll bar to the right of the window.Position a horizontal (left-to-right) scroll bar at the bottom of the window.SizeA vertical scroll bar should be the height of the scrollable portion of the window body.A horizontally scroll bar should be at least one-half the width of the scrollable portion of the window body.
65 Richtlinie für Scrollbars (3) Current State IndicationWhenever the window size or information position changes, the scroll bar components must also change, reflecting the current state.Include scroll bars in all sizable windows.If no information is currently available through scrolling in a particular direction, the relevant directional arrow should be subdued or grayed.Directional PreferenceWhere the choice exists, vertical (top-to-bottom) scrolling is preferred to horizontal (left-to-right) scrolling.
66 Tooltips - Advantages/ Disadvantages + Identifies an otherwise unidentified control.+ Reduces possible screen clutter caused by control captions.+ Enables control size to be reduced.- Not obvious, must be discovered.- Inadvertent appearance can be distracting.
67 Tooltip Guidelines Display after a short-time out. Present at the lower-right edge of the pointer.Display fully on the screen.For text boxes, display centered under the control.Display in the standard system tooltip colors.Remove the tooltip when the control is activated, or the pointer is moved away.
68 Progress Indicator Guidelines When filling the indicator:If horizontally-arrayed, fill left-to-right.If vertically-arrayed, fill bottom-to-top.Fill with a color or a shade of gray.Include descriptive text for the process, as necessary.Place text outside of the control.
69 Choosing a Type of Control For familiar, meaningful data, choose the technique that, in theory, requires the fewest number of keystrokes to complete.If the data is unfamiliar, or prone to typing errors, choose a selection technique.
70 Aided versus Unaided Entry Provide aided entry whenever possible.Absorb any extra and unnecessary keystrokes.Provide an auditory signal that autocompletion has been performed.
71 Comparison of GUI Controls Preference SpeedDirect Manipulation O ODrag and Drop On.Drag and Drop Between.Selection.Icons.Radio ButtonsMenus (Drop-down list boxes)EntryOne entry areaFour entry areas.
72 Comparison of GUI Controls Preference SpeedDirect Manipulation O ODrag and Drop On.Drag and Drop Between.Selection.Icons.Radio ButtonsMenus (Drop-down list boxes)EntryOne entry areaFour entry areas.
73 Comparison Beispiel Filename Number Size Date Filename Number Size Radio buttonFNSDOne Entry AreaF, N, S, D4 Entry Areas1. Position:2. Position:3. Position:4. Position:
74 Weitere ErgebnisseBis zu 30 Items können für Radio Buttons oder Check-Boxes (8 Ankreuzungen) sinnvoll sein.Entry field + Radio-Buttons ist eine erwünschte Kombination, wenn nicht vordefinierte Eingaben möglich sindEingabe von Werten:Spin Buttons am genauestenText Entry field bevorzugt, am schnellsten
75 Control Selection Criteria - Art der Daten - Mutually exclusive or nonexclusivediscrete or continuouslimited or unlimited in scopefixed or variable entry lengthpredictable or unpredictable ordercan be pictorially presented or not
76 Criteria Art der Nutzung How often is an item entered or selected?How often is an item changed?How precise must the item be entered or selected?
77 Criteria Eigenschaften der Nutzer How much training in control operation will be provided?How meaningful or known is the property or data for the user?How rememberable or learnable is the property or data for the user?How frequently used will the system be?Is the user an experienced typist?
78 When to permit Text Entry Permit text entry if any of the following questions can be answered YES:Is the data unlimited in size and scope?Is the data familiar?Is the data not conducive to typing errors?Will typing be faster than choice selection?Is the user an experienced typist?
79 Choosing a Command Form The following considerations are involved in choosing the correct command form:Is the command part of a standard tool set?The total number of commands in the application.The complexity of the commands.The frequency with which commands are used.Whether or not the command is used in association with another control.
80 What kind of Control to Choose TaskMutually Exclusivenon-mutually exclusiveSelect or type a valueSetting a Value within a RangeBest ControlRadio ButtonsCheck BoxesRadio Buttons with “Other” Text Entry FieldSpin ButtonIf Screen SpaceConstraints ExistDrop-down List BoxMultiple-selection List BoxDrop-down Combination BoxText Entry Field