Presentation on theme: "GS/Law 6761 Fall 2007 Instructor: Ian Greene. Preliminary Matters Introductions Origin of this course: Justice John Evans Evaluation Presentations."— Presentation transcript:
GS/Law 6761 Fall 2007 Instructor: Ian Greene
Preliminary Matters Introductions Origin of this course: Justice John Evans Evaluation Presentations
My own background Grew up in a small Alberta town (population 1000) Attended the U of Alberta (Edmonton), and did a student exchange to Bishops University (Sherbrooke, Quebec) during 2 nd year Majored in political science Wanted to be a lawyer BUT got a scholarship for an MA at U of T MA in Political Science at University of Toronto: loved political science study of courts
Post MA Traveled around the world for 2 years: New Zealand, Australia, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Europe Accepted to law school, but decided to do a Ph.D. first. Studied the causes of unreasonable delay in courts Theory: we didnt understand the proper relationship between judicial independence and ministerial accountability What I found: friction, misunderstanding, and passing the buck amongst judges, lawyers, crown attorneys and court administrators is the major cause of unreasonable delay
British Columbia & Alberta Worked for Alberta govt for 4 years Assistant to a cabinet minister 1 year Middle manager in Alberta Social Services 3 years First teaching job: College of the Rockies in Columbia Valley, BC
York University Years Research on judicial behaviour & ethical politics The Courts (2007) A Question of Ethics (2006) Honest Politics (1998) Final Appeal (1998) Judges & Judging (1991) The Charter of Rights (1988)
Teaching For next 4 years will teach mostly graduate courses Director of Master of Public Policy, Administration & Law Program Co-Coordinator of part-time LLM in Administrative La Master of McLaughlin College Youre invited to College events – eg. Joe Clark speaking on Thursday, November 15, 5 p.m., 014 McLaughlin
A.V. Dicey Albert Venn Dicey - British jurist ( ) Oxford graduate & later professor & Oxford & London School of Economics Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution – 1885 Refined idea of unwritten constitution Constitutional conventions (generally recognized as mandatory practices – monarch should dismiss a government that clearly breaches a convention) Responsible government: cabinet responsible to legislature, cabinet solidarity, ministerial accountability
Basic principles of British constitution: Parliamentary (legislative) Sovereignty Distinct from U.S. system of separation of powers The rule of law (law applies equally to everyone unless exceptions written into the law) No need for a British bill of rights: judges who apply the rule of law properly safeguard human rights far better than having to apply a rigid bill of rights Judicial independence Parliamentary supremacy means that the legislature determines the jurisdiction & organization of courts, but once appointed, judges are independent as protected by the Act of Settlement, 1701
Act of Settlement Superior court judges appointed during good behaviour (security of tenure), and their salaries are established by Parliament (not the cabinet) (In Canada, Valente (1985): -security of tenure (judges cant be removed except as recommended by an inquiry that conducts a fair hearing) -salaries must be set by legislature and high enough to discourage bribery -judges control those aspects of court administration that directly affect adjudication
Parliamentary Supremacy vs. Separation of Powers U.S. constitution of 1787 recognizes separation of powers, not legislative supremacy. Why? Fathers of U.S. constitution read Montesquieu (~1750) who argued that the British protected their liberty through a separation of powers. But British government was evolving toward parliamentary supremacy and responsible government Dicey argued that separation of powers meant judicial supremacy. British unwritten constitution infinitely superior.
British system vs. French Common law system ensures that all courts and administrative tribunals are supervised by superior court judges, who ensure liberty through properly applying the rule of law. The French and other civil law jurisdictions have separate administrative law courts. This can lead to abuse of power. Common law system is infinitely superior to civil law systems, and the British common law system is infinitely superior to the American common law system
Alan Cairns The past and future of the Canadian administrative state. Yong Wang Alan Cairns – one of Canadas best-known political scientists Born in Ontario B.A. in 1953 and M.A. degree 1957 from U of Toronto Member of the Department of Political Science at University of British Columbia from and served as head of the department from 1973 to 1980.