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Six Sigma Quality. 1. Understand total quality management. 2. Describe how quality is measured and be aware of the different dimensions of quality. 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Six Sigma Quality. 1. Understand total quality management. 2. Describe how quality is measured and be aware of the different dimensions of quality. 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Six Sigma Quality

2 1. Understand total quality management. 2. Describe how quality is measured and be aware of the different dimensions of quality. 3. Understand the meaning of six sigma and be able to explain the define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) quality improvement process. 4. Understand what ISO certification means.

3  Critical to quality: attributes most important to the customer  Defect: failing to deliver what customer wants  Process capability: what your process can deliver  Variation: what customer sees and feels  Stable operations: ensuring consistent, predictable processes to improve what the customer sees and feels  Design for six-sigma: designing to meet customer needs and process capability LO 1

4  Total quality management: managing the entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer  Two fundamental operational goals: 1.Careful design of the product or service 2.Ensuring that the organization’s systems can consistently produce the design  TQM was a response to the Japanese superiority in quality LO 1

5  Established in 1987 by Department of Commerce  Goal is to help companies review and structure their quality programs  Has requirement that suppliers demonstrate they are measuring and documenting their quality practices LO 1

6 Three Quality Gurus Define Quality Crosby: conformance to requirements Deming: A predictable degree of uniformity and dependability at low cost and suited to the market Juran: fitness for use (satisfies customer’s needs) LO 1

7  Create consistency of purpose  Lead to promote change  Build quality into the products  Build long term relationships  Continuously improve product, quality, and service  Start training  Emphasize leadership LO 1

8  Drive out fear  Break down barriers between departments  Stop haranguing workers  Support, help, improve  Remove barriers to pride in work  Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement  Put everybody in the company to work on the transformation LO 1

9  Design quality: inherent value of the product in the marketplace  Conformance quality: degree to which the product or service design specifications are met  Quality at the source: the person who does the work takes responsibility for making sure it meets specifications LO 1

10  Performance: primary product or service characteristics  Features: added touches, bells and whistles, secondary characteristics  Reliability/durability: consistency of performance over time  Serviceability: ease of repair  Aesthetics: sensory characteristics  Perceived quality: past performance and reputation LO 2

11  Basic cost assumptions 1.Failures are caused 2.Prevention is cheaper 3.Performance can be measured  Cost of quality 1.Appraisal cost 2.Prevention cost 3.Internal failure cost 4.External failure cost LO 2

12 4.Act1.Plan 3.Check 2.Do Identify the improvement and make a plan Test the planIs the plan working Implement the plan LO 3

13  A philosophy and set of methods companies use to eliminate defects in their products and processes  Seeks to reduce variation in the processes that lead to product defects  The name, “six sigma” refers to the variation that exists within plus or minus three standard deviations of the process outputs LO 3

14  Six Sigma allows managers to readily describe process performance using a common metric: Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) LO 3

15 Example of Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) calculation. Suppose we observe 200 letters delivered incorrectly to the wrong addresses in a small city during a single day when a total of 200,000 letters were delivered. What is the DPMO in this situation? So, for every one million letters delivered this city’s postal managers can expect to have 1,000 letters incorrectly sent to the wrong address. Cost of Quality: What might that DPMO mean in terms of over- time employment to correct the errors? LO 3

16  Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC)  Developed by General Electric as a means of focusing effort on quality using a methodological approach  Overall focus of the methodology is to understand and achieve what the customer wants  A 6-sigma program seeks to reduce the variation in the processes that lead to these defects  DMAIC consists of five steps…. LO 3

17 1. Define ◦ Identify customers and their priorities ◦ Identify a project ◦ Identify critical-to-quality characteristics 2. Measure ◦ Determine how to measure the process ◦ Identify key internal processes 3. Analyze ◦ Determine most likely causes of defects ◦ Understand why key defects are generated LO 3

18 4. Improve ◦ Identify means to remove causes of defects ◦ Confirm the key variables ◦ Identify the maximum acceptance ranges ◦ Modify process to stay within acceptable range 5. Control ◦ Determine how to maintain improvements ◦ Put tools in place to track key variables LO 3

19  Uses many of the same statistical tools as other quality movements ◦ Used in a systematic project-oriented fashion through define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) cycle  More detailed version of Deming PDCA cycle  Continuous improvement: seeks continual improvement in all aspects of operations ◦ Also uses scientific method LO 2

20  We are the maker of this cereal. Consumer Reports has just published an article that shows that we frequently have less than 15 ounces of cereal in a box.  What should we do? LO 3

21  What is the critical-to-quality characteristic?  The CTQ (critical-to-quality) characteristic in this case is the weight of the cereal in the box. LO 3

22  How would we measure to evaluate the extent of the problem?  What are acceptable limits on this measure? LO 3

23  Let’s assume that the government says that we must be within ± 5 percent of the weight advertised on the box.  Upper Tolerance Limit = (16) = 16.8 ounces  Lower Tolerance Limit = 16 –.05(16) = 15.2 ounces LO 3

24  We go out and buy 1,000 boxes of cereal and find that they weight an average of ounces with a standard deviation of.529 ounces.  What percentage of boxes are outside the tolerance limits? LO 3

25 Upper Tolerance = 16.8 Lower Tolerance = 15.2 Process Mean = Std. Dev. =.529 What percentage of boxes are defective (i.e. less than 15.2 oz)? Z = (x – Mean)/Std. Dev. = (15.2 – )/.529 = NORMSDIST(Z) = NORMSDIST(-1.276) = Approximately, 10 percent of the boxes have less than 15.2 Ounces of cereal in them! LO 3

26 ◦ Worker error ◦ Machine issues ◦ Raw material mix ◦... LO 3

27 ◦ 6  minimum from process center to nearest spec LO 3

28  Implies 2 ppB “bad” with no process shift  With 1.5  shift in either direction from center (process will move), implies 3.4 ppm “bad”. LO 3

29  What changes are to be made to reduce variation?  Center process  Change process specifications LO 3

30  Statistical Process Control (SPC) ◦ Use data from the actual process ◦ Estimate distributions ◦ Look at capability - is good quality possible ◦ Statistically monitor the process over time LO 3

31  Flowcharts  Run charts  Pareto charts  Checksheets  Cause-and-effect diagrams  Opportunity flow diagrams  Control charts LO 2








39  Failure mode and effect analysis (DMEA): a structured approach to identify, estimate, prioritize, and evaluate risk of possible failures at each stage in the process  Design of experiments (DOE): a statistical test to determine cause-and-effect relationships between process variables and output LO 3

40 1. Executive leaders must champion the process of improvement 2. Corporation-wide training in Six Sigma concepts and tools 3. Setting stretch objectives for improvement 4. Continuous reinforcement and rewards LO 3

41  Shingo’s argument: ◦ SQC methods do not prevent defects ◦ Defects arise when people make errors ◦ Defects can be prevented by providing workers with feedback on errors 1.Successive check 2.Self-check 3.Source inspection  Poka-Yoke includes: ◦ Checklists ◦ Special tooling that prevents workers from making errors LO 3

42  Series of standards agreed upon by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ◦ Adopted in 1987 ◦ More than 160 countries  A prerequisite for global competition?  ISO 9000 an international reference for quality, ISO is primarily concerned with environmental management LO 4

43 1. First party: A firm audits itself against ISO 9000 standards 2. Second party: A customer audits its supplier 3. Third party: A "qualified" national or international standards or certifying agency serves as auditor LO 4

44 1. Identify those processes needing improvement 2. Identify a firm that is the world leader in performing the process 3. Contact the managers of that company and make a personal visit to interview managers and workers 4. Analyze data LO 4

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