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Seminar Origins of Operating Systems

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1 Seminar Origins of Operating Systems
The Microkernel Mach in NeXTSTEP Gregor Schmidt Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 1 1

2 The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel The next steps
Overview Introduction The road to NeXTSTEP The NeXT computers The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel Interprocess Communication by example The next steps Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 2 2

3 The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel The next steps
Overview Introduction The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel The next steps Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 3 3

4 1986 - NeXT computers, Inc. was founded by Steve Jobs and
The Road to NeXTStep NeXT computers, Inc. was founded by Steve Jobs and colleagues from Apple Rich Page George Crow Bud Tribble Dan‘L Lewin Susan Barnes and Randy Heffner Gary H. Moore The first computer was presented Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 4 4

5 $ 4.995,- The NeXT computers based on Motorola 680x0 2 basic models
NeXTcube (1989) NeXTstation (1990) 25 MHz resp. 33 MHz 8 MB RAM (up to 32 MB) 105 MB SCSI HDD Floppy Disc Drive 10Base-T and 10Base-2 Ethernet Monochrome Display All later versions of NeXTSTEP operating systems run on these machines $ 4.995,- Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 5 5

6 The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel The next steps
Overview Introduction The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel The next steps Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 6 6

7 The NeXTStep Operating System Main Features
Mach Kernel BSD4.3 user space server NeXTSTEP user interface Display Postscript Object-oriented application framework Objective C as standard programming language Extraordinary OO-development tools High integration of all native applications BSD re-factoring BSD-Reno for Mach Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 7 7

8 The NeXTSTEP Operating System Demo - By Steve Jobs
Product Demonstration of NeXTSTEP Release 3.0 1:00 Start 6:30 Word Perfect 24:00 Interface Builder Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 8 8

9 The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel The next steps
Overview Introduction The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel The next steps Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 9 9

10 The Mach Microkernel History
developed at Carnegie-Mellon university Microkernel Deployed in several systems NeXTSTEP / OPENSTEP - Rhapsody - Mac OS X GNU/Hurd MkLinux Tru64 (OSF/1) NeXTSTEP uses Mach 2.5 Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 10 10

11 The Mach Microkernel Microkernel
Little features - great reliability Only the main features run in privileged mode Process management Scheduling Synchronization and communication Device drivers and all other services run as user services lots of communication overhead lots of synchronization small interface little trusted computing base Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 11 11

12 The Mach Microkernel Main Features
Preemptive Multitasking Multithreading, Multiprocessing Memory protection, virtual memory Interprocess communication via mach messages Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 12 12

13 The Mach Microkernel Interprocess Communication
Transparent network support Typed messages including type conversion between different languages Integrated with virtual memory local messages are not copied but mapped into receiver‘s address space Remote messages are send lazily Port Rights Management Ownership Receive Send Port names - unique Integer Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 13 13

14 The Mach Microkernel How to find Ports in NeXTStep
Environment Manager for local use only Network Message Server enables network-wide communication Service Server in Mac OS X: Bootstrap Server Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 14 14

15 The Mach Microkernel Message Sending the Easy Way
Mach Interface Generator Corba-like Stub-and-Skeleton-Generator Message encoding and decoding for free Little RPC-specific code Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 15 15

16 The Mach Microkernel Interprocess Communication by Example
Calculator example Server providing calculation facilities Client using command line interface to receive tasks and queries server for the answer Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 16 16

17 The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel The next steps
Overview Introduction The NeXTSTEP operating system The Mach Microkernel The next steps Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 17 17

18 1995 - reorganization of NeXT towards software
The next steps reorganization of NeXT towards software NeXT computers, Inc. - NeXT software, Inc. NeXTSTEP - OPENSTEP support for different platforms all NeXT computers Intel based computers PA-RISC Workstations Sun SPARC (IBM PPC) in labs WebObjects - first application server Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 18 18

19 The next steps OpenStep and OPENSTEP
OpenStep is an object oriented API Designed by NeXT and Sun OPENSTEP is an implementation Other for Windows NT Solaris Linux - GNUStep Main components Display PostScript Objective-C Runtime and Compilers Majority of NeXTSTEP's Objective-C libraries Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 19 19

20 1996 - take over by Apple, Inc. - 400 Millions US$
The next steps take over by Apple, Inc Millions US$ OPENSTEP becomes Mac OS X with a new User Interface - Aqua but the same underlying system components Mach enhanced to XNU (hybrid kernel) within Darwin Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 20 20

21 References BOYKIN, Joseph; KIRSCHEN, David; LANGERMAN, Alan; LoVERSO; Susan: Programming under Mach. Addison-Wesley UNIX and Open System Series, ISBN , Addison-Wesley 1993 GARFINKEL, Simon L.; MAHONEY, Michael K.: NeXTSTEP PROGRAMMING STEP ONE: Object-Oriented Applications. TELOS. The Electronic Library of Science ISBN , Springer-Verlag 1993 POLZE, Andreas: Vereiltes Rechnen unter Mach. unix/mail 2/1995, Carl Hanser Verlag München. Verfügbar im Internet: <http://www.informatik.hu- berlin.de/~apolze/papers/um2-95.ps>. - online im Internet SLABIHOUD, Stephan: NeXT Computer, Inc., , Verfügbar im Internet: <http://www.8bit-museum.de/docs/next1.htm>. Stand: Juni online im Internet Special References: en.wikipedia.org - for lots of information around NeXTStep and Mach lists.apple.com - for good code example and special information Gregor Schmidt Origins of Operating Systems - The Microkernel Mach Betriebssysteme und Middleware / Prof. Andreas Polze Hasso-Plattner-Institut 21 21


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