MODERN APPROACHES The Systems Theory. Contingency Theory. Theory Z and Quality Management.
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Frederick Winslow Taylor – Father of Scientific Mgt; an engineer and inventor. Wrote the principles in Involved four steps: –Develop a science for each job element. –Select and train employees scientifically. –Continuous supervision to ensure compliance. –Continue to plan but use worker to do job/work- one best way------
contd Piecerate scheme; Time and Motion Study- jobs broken down, unnecessary motions eliminated. Criticism- Two blind spots:- –First is the belief that since work has to be divided into the simplest constituent motions, it should also be arranged as a series of individual motions- each motion being carried out by an individual worker. Human behavioral element ignored. –The second blind spot – As a worker is taught individual motions, he acquires a habit and experience not understanding and knowledge and therefore feels insecure.
CONLUSION. Scientific management does not take into consideration the fact that change is inevitable and one of the major fns of an org is to bring about change. The two blind spots explain why its application is met with resistance by workers. The second blind spot is the divorce of planning from doing; it leads to complete disempowerment of the worker. It assumed people are rational which may not be so. It ignores job satisfaction.
ADMINISTRATIVE Author FAYOL; rationale was- one best way to put an org together and focus was on the org rather than the job. The most prominent in this field was Henri Fayol. His contribution:- –The Six divisions of activities. –The fourteen principles of management.
BUREAUCRATIC Max Weber- Rationale was rational and impersonal, focus was org level as in administrative, derived from ‘buro’ meaning office. Formal structure hierarchical in nature bound by rules and procedures. Other charateristics:- –Work and duties defined clearly. –Abstract rules and regulations. –Impersonal. –Hierarchical. –Not popular, favoritism/nepotism.
BELIEFS/ FINDINGS Beliefs: –Job performance depends on individual worker. –Fatigue is the main factor affecting output. –Management sets production standards. –contd.
contd Findings:- –The group is the key factor regarding performance. –Perceived meaning and importance of the work determine output. –Work place culture sets its own production standards.
CRITICISM Procedures, analysis of findings and conclusions are questionable. Relationship between satisfaction of worker and their productivity was too simplistic. Failed to focus attention on the attitudes of employees at workplace.
Some Observations A complaint is not necessarily an objective recital of facts it can be a symptom of--- Objects, persons and events carry a social meaning Personal reference social reference---- Position or status in the org System of values ---- Influence of working in a group -----
MASLOW’S NEEDS THEORY Assumptions;- –Needs that are never fulfilled completely. –Try to fulfill our needs through our actions. –They occur in an heirarchy. –They are in an ascending order. –contd
THE NEEDS IN ORDER ARE? Physiological. Safety and security. Belongingness or social needs. Esteem or status. Self actualization.
THEORY X AND Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X :- –Most people dislike work and avoid doing it. –Most people must be coerced or threatened with punishment before the work. –Most people prefer to be directed.
contd Theory Y :- –Work is natural activity like play or rest. –People are capable of self direction and self control. –People become committed to organizational objectives if they are rewarded in doing so.
MODEL I Vs II (ARGYRIS) Model I –Manipulative. –Pitted against each other. –No risks. –As opposed to this –Open. –Trusting. –Good communication represents model II.
SYSTEMS THEORY Systems Viewpoint:- –Individual. –Group. –Organization. –Environment.
SYSTEMS PROCESS Resources – labor, Materials, capital, Machinery and Information (Inputs). Transformation – Planning, Organization, staffing, Leading, Controlling, Technology (Managerial and technological abilities.) Outputs – Goods, Services, Profits/ losses, Employee satisfaction. The feedback loop.
CONTINGENCY THEORY Integration of Systems viewpoint, behavioral Viewpoint, and the Traditional viewpoint. Managers use of other viewpoints to solve problems involving :- –External environment. –Technology and –Individuaals.
THEORY Z AND QUALITY MGT. Author – William Ouchi. It is a combination of both American and Japanese styles of management. Many researchers have studied Japanese companies and have tried to analyze the reasons for their high productivity levels and loyalty of the workforce. They found it depended on the employees socialization into the company’s culture. The type Z org refers to those organizations that blend that blend the american and Japanese styles of management.
SPECIAL FEATURES OF JAPANESE CULTURE. Lifetime employment. No firing unless a criminal offence is committed. Promotions are slow. Collective decisions and collective responsibility. Implicit control mechanism based on trust and goodwill. Corporate social structure. Loyalty and commitment to the org.
SPECIAL FEATURES OF AMERICAN STYLE Short term view. Fast track and awards and promotions. Explicit control mechanism. Specialization. Focus on the individual. Only concerned with the individual.
SUMMING UP Managers – Individuals who achieve goals through other people. Organization – a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to to achieve a common goal or a set of goals. Organizational behavior – A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organizations effectiveness.
Contd. To sum up our definition, OB is concerned with the study of what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization. And because OB is concerned specifically with employment related situations, you should not be surprised to find that it emphasizes behavior as related to concerns such as jobs, work, absenteeism, employment turnover, productivity, human performance and management.
Contd. Contents – It is generally agreed that it consists of topics such as – motivation, leader behavior and power, interpersonal communication, Change processes, conflict, group structure and processes, learning, attitude development and perception, stress etc, etc.
CLOSING STATEMENT Replacing Intuition with systematic study. –“Behavior generally is predictable if we know the person perceived the situation the situation and what is important to him or her. While people’s behavior may not appear to be rational to an outsider, there is reason to believe it usually is intended to be rational and it is seen as rational by them. An observer often sees behavior as non rational because the observer does not have access to the same information or does not perceive the environment in the same way.”