Annotation of speech from the phonetics/phonology perspective Bettina Braun & Jürgen Trouvain 15.02.2002 Fachrichtung 4.7, Institut für Phonetik
Annotation of speech 1 Manipulating text vs. speech  text file manipulation "vowel-only" version remove all consonant letters, replace them with a space, so that only the vowels are left e ea e o e a o o o o : a e ou y i e o i i a e u y e i e a e oo.
Annotation of speech 2 Manipulating text vs. speech  text file manipulation "consonants-only" version remove all vowel letters, replace them with a space, so that only the consonants are left Th w th r f r c st f r t m rr w: r th r cl d n th m n ng w th f w s nn sp lls n th ft n n.
Annotation of speech 3 Manipulating text vs. speech  The weather forecast for tomorrow: rather cloudy in the morning with a few sunny spells in the afternoon. speech file manipulation original recording, not manipulated "consonants-only" version: vowel segments replaced with silence "vowels-only" version: consonant segments replaced with silence
Annotation of speech 4 Coarticulation articulating means articulator in motion, not in fixed position articulators move continously, not discretely articulatory movements temporally overlap
Annotation of speech 5 original vowels only vowels only without silences
Annotation of speech 6 Timing information of consonant durations: silence is more than nothing
Annotation of speech 7 Speech melody information about fundamental frequency (F0) in the voiced vowel segments with F0 variation without any F0 variation (monotonous)
Annotation of speech 8 Annotation of sound segments: discreteness in mind & in physics "Es ist 8 Uhr morgens." mmmmmm oOoO N ssssss graphemes phonemes phones O6 rrrr gggg e@e@ nnnn
Annotation of speech 9 Annotation of sound segments: discrete units? "Die Nacht haben Maiers gut geschlafen." "…………… haben Maier ……………………." phonemich a: b @ n m aI @ r s acoustic-phonetich a: b m aI 6 s articulatory phonetic h a: b n m aI 6 s (possibly)
Annotation of speech 10 Segmentation of sound segments: degree of discreteness "Wer möchte noch Milch?" clear segmentation: closure and closure release in [t] in "möch t e" unclear segmentation: [I l] in "M il ch"
Annotation of speech 11 Kiel Corpus read & spontaneous speech orthography phonemic (canonical) form realised form word & sentence boundary manually labelled
Annotation of speech 12 From sounds to syllables: how many syllables? semi-vowels: syllabic or not? StudieStu - di - e vs. Stu - die PianoPi - a - no vs. Pia - no size of auditory window "… mit mir diese Dienstreise zu unternehmen, …" rei - se - zu - un - ter zu - un - ter zu - un
Annotation of speech 13 From sounds to syllables: where is the syllable boundary? ambisyllabic consonants & onset principles Mitte/m I - t @/ vs. /m I _t @/ Adler /a: t - l @ r/ vs. / a: - d l @ r/ Fenster /f E n s - t E r/ vs. /f E n - s t E r/ resyllabification "Wenn es Ihnen da 5 Tage lang irgendwo passen würde." /v E n - E s/ vs. [v E _ n E s]
Annotation of speech 14 Controlled elicitation of spontaneous speech Monologues Erzählung Bildbeschreibung Dialogues: Task-oriented data collection Map Task Appointment-making Degree of naturalness? Controlled elicitation
Annotation of speech 15 Controlled elicitation of spontaneous speech
Annotation of speech 16 Problems for annotation: non-speech in speech Many non-linguistic signal portions: swallowing lip-smacking breathing unfilled, filled pauses laughter hesitational lengthening Partly overlapping with speech
Annotation of speech 17 Functions of prosody Generally: Features above the segmental level suprasegmental
Annotation of speech 18 Phonetic encoding of prosody perceived pitch over time duration intensity spectral quality
Annotation of speech 19 Prosodic annotation: Signal oriented Tilt-model (Taylor 2000) intonational events continuous parameters (tilt parameter): amplitude: sum of the magnitude of rise and fall duration: sum of rise and fall durations tilt: shape of the event 1.00.50
Annotation of speech 20 Prosodic annotation: Autosegmental, phonological GToBI (Grice et al.) Tonal tier, break tier Two levels of pitch-heights (L, H) Simple and complex pitch accents Association to word stress marked by * Exact temporal alignment Boundary tones marked by % Strength of prosodic breaks (3, 4)
Annotation of speech 21 Prosodic annotation: Example tonal orth. break misc
Annotation of speech 23 Prosodic annotation: Phonological, single-layer KIM (Kohler 1995) no suprasegmental tiers => efficient analysis of segment-prosody interaction differentiated from segmental labels by special diacritica time marks for prosodic events anchored to word boundaries. Example:
Annotation of speech 29 Data structures and retrieval Mostly pure textfiles, aligned to signal Retrieval using script languages (GToBI in EMU-Format) XML-formats
Annotation of speech 30 What for? Basic research Rhythmic patterns Speech rate measurements (units, domains) Temporal alignment & scaling of pitch accents Differentiated analysis of pitch range Speech technology Modelling accentuation in ASR Speech rate in ASR Intonation and timing for synthesis
Annotation of speech 31 Bibliography Alwan, A., H.Bourlard and S.Furui (eds). 2001. Speech Communication 33. Special Issue on Speech Annotation and Corpus Tools. Grice,M., S.Baumann and R.Benzmüller (to appear). German ToBI. In: S.Jun (ed). Prosodic Typology Grice, M. et al. (2000). Representation and annotation of dialogue. In: Handbook of Multimodal and Spoken Dialogue Systems. Resources, Terminology and Product Evaluation. Kluwer, pp. 1-101. Kohler, K.J. (ed) 1995. Kieler Arbeitsberichte 29. Taylor, P. 2000. Analysis and Synthesis of Intonation Using the Tilt Model. In: JASA 107(3). pp. 1697-1714.
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