Presentation on theme: "The Phonetics of English Pronunciation - Week 12 W.Barry Institut für Phonetik Universität des Saarlandes IPUS Version WS 2007-8."— Presentation transcript:
The Phonetics of English Pronunciation - Week 12 W.Barry Institut für Phonetik Universität des Saarlandes IPUS Version WS
Registration for Final Test Compulsory and binding for BA-students (not necessary for Magister or Diplom students) Please enter your name in the correct Final-Test registration list (Dolmetscherinstitut or Anglistik) after the lecture …. or by Monday 2nd February at the latest (the lists will be accessible between 9 am and pm in the secretary's office of the Phonetics Institute)
Arrangements for Final Test Two options are still open: a) Written test, Monday 18th February, OR b) On-line test (CLIX), Monday 25th February Decision depends on: Successful on-line "Probeklausur" All students must have an account to access CLIX Please arrange an account with the Computer Centre if you do not have an internet account. The Probeklausur will be made available on 4th February (written) or later (CLIX version)
Remaining Programme this Semester Today: Getting the tone right! Intonational differences between German and English. 4th February: Problem discussion YOU ask the questions; I try to answer them! 11th February: Discussion of Probeklausur 18th February: EITHER Final Test (written), OR Question-Answer session
What is intonation? Primarily: It is the melodic structuring of spoken utterances. More comprehensively: It is the demarcation (separation from one another) of sense "chunks" and the tonal accentuation of the informationally important words in those chunks.
What is intonation? (2) Melodic Structure: Words in a sentence can be made prominent by making them Higher or Lower than the surrounding words, or by making the pitch on the Rise or Fall. Examples: What would you like to do? What would you like to do? N.B. Only the words that are important for the message are made tonally prominent (tonally accented)
What is intonation? (3) Demarcation: The important sense units (not necessarily syntactically coherent) are separated from one another (i.e. are "demarcated") Examples: Humans think God is in con trol. Humans think. God is in con trol.
What is intonation? (4) The Informationally important words that we accent with pitch can be important due to the semantic content of the words or to the emotional weight attached to the words by the speaker: E.g. We re fuse to ac cept that as signment. (the lexically important words are accented) vs. We can't be expected to do that! (two pronouns are accented because of their subjective importance to the speaker)
Differences in Intonation? The melodic structure of Standard Southern British English and Standard German are formally very similar (i.e., there is the same inventory of tonal accents) … but there are some deceptive differences which can lead to misunderstanding (they are used differently): - Different neutral and emotionally non-neutral melodies can lead to unfortunate misinterpretation of a speakers attitude. The one or two small but important formal differences are very difficult to modify (because intonation is acquired very early).
Difference in "neutral" accenting: Strong tendency in German to have rising tonal accents: on the main (non-final) accented words in emotionally neutral sentences: Der alte Mann wollte Kohl auf dem Stück Land hinter seinem Haus anbauen. (In an English sentence this sounds rather insistent) English tends to have high-level or falling accents The old man wanted to grow cabbages on the plot of land behind his house. (This sounds rather insistent in a German sentence)
A few examples for "neutral" accenting: Der Schwiegervater meiner Schwester ist Millio när. My sister's father-in-law is a millio naire. Die Hausaufgaben müssen donnerstags bis 18 Uhr eingereicht werden.. The homework has to be handed in by 6 p m on Thursday. Stu dierende müssen heutzutage viel mehr ris kieren Students have to take a lot more risks nowadays.
Tag questions – A tricky area Its rather cold today, isnt it? Its not very hot today, is it? Syntax: Its usual to learn about the grammatical structure of tag questions: i.e., Repeat the verb of the main clause with reversed polarity (positive-negative or negative-positive) Intonation: The differences between English tag questions and German tags is very rarely taught. But they are a stubborn sign of a non-native speaker. What are the German utterances which could correspond to the two questions at the top?
The intonation of Tag questions (a) In both cases, the speaker is sure that his/her observation will meet with the agreement of the listener. German tag intonation: (Es ist) recht kalt heute, nicht? English tag intonation: Its rather cold today, isnt it? Its not very hot today, is it?
Some practice of Tag questions (a) Its a funny old world we live in, isnt it? The climate has changed, hasnt it? We cant con tinue like this, can we? We dont want to risk our childrens future, do we? But they have to take responsi bility for them selves, havent they? People tend to forget that, dont they? Mind you, its easier to talk than act, isnt it? You should tell the poli ticians that, shouldnt you?
Tag questions (b): Speaker unsure. In both cases, the speaker is unsure whether his/her observation will meet with the agreement of the listener. You wont be late tomorrow, will you? English tag intonation: Youll be later tomorrow, wont you? German tag intonation: Du kommst morgen später, oder?
Some practice of Tag questions (unsure) Youve been on holiday, havent you? Her children went to boarding school, didnt they? Your sons an ac countant, isnt he? They had a holiday cottage in Devon, didnt they? Yes, but it was de stroyed in a storm, wasnt it? Business has been im proving recently, hasnt it? Not many people learn Chi nese, do they? More people learn Chi nese than Ti betan, dont they?
Implicational Fall-Rise" – very English! They can't do every thing ………… But they are doing as much as they can, (and you or some- body could help!) I'll help if I can ………… But there are a lot reasons why I may not be able to, so don't expect too much! But I don't LIKE him very much! In English more is often implied than is actually said: E.g. I don't dislike him …………
Some practice of Implication Fall-Rises" You can't expect too much ………… They never helped me …………… Her other children managed it …………. We can't always expect them to help………… I've mown the lawn …………… He always used to be helpful…………. There isn't much you can do about it………… You don't want to spend too much……….
Now revise the lecture scripts, ….. Re-read the sections in the book and the script……. And prepare your questions for next week. Exam Date (if written test): Mon, 18th Feb. Two sessions: and ; Probably HERE (Musiksaal) (if CLIX online test): Mon, 25th Feb. FOUR sessions: ; ; ;