2 1Objectives (1 of 4)Describe changes in the fire department from the colonial days to the present.Describe the four basic principles of organization of the fire department.Define the chain of command as it applies to a fire department.
3 1Objectives (2 of 4)List the different types of fire department companies and describe their functions.Describe the roles of fire fighters within the fire department.
4 1Objectives (3 of 4)Describe the fire department’s regulations, policies, and standard operating procedures, and how they apply to the fire fighter.Locate information in departmental documents and standard operating procedures.
5 1Objectives (4 of 4)Define the roles and responsibilities of Fire Fighter I and Fire Fighter II.List five guidelines for successful fire fighter training.
6 Introduction Becoming a fire fighter is not easy. 1IntroductionBecoming a fire fighter is not easy.Fire fighters are challenged both physically and mentally.Fire fighter training will expand your understanding of fire suppression.
7 Fire Service in the United States 1Fire Service in the United StatesAbout 1.1 million fire fightersApproximately 30,000 fire departments75% of career fire fighters serve communities of 25,000 or largerHalf of volunteers serve rural areas of population 2,500 or smaller
8 Fire Statistics for the United States 1Fire Statistics for the United States401,000 residential fires in 2002Average of 46 per hour2,695 residential fire fatalities in 2002Average of one every 195 minutes
9 History of the Fire Service 1History of the Fire ServiceRomans created first fire department, the Familia Publica.First paid department in the U.S. was Boston (established in 1679).Ben Franklin started the first volunteer department in the U.S. in Philadelphia in 1735.Citizens kept fire buckets to assist with fire suppression.
10 The Great Chicago Fire Began October 8, 1871 Burned for three days Damage totals:2,000 acres burned17,000 homes destroyed$200 million in damage300 dead90,000 homeless
11 1The Peshtigo FireFlash forest fire occurred at same time as the Great Chicago Fire“Tornado of fire” 1,000' high and five miles wideDeadliest fire in U.S. history2,200 dead2,400 square miles of forest land burnedSeveral small communities destroyed
12 1Fire Equipment (1 of 2)Colonial fire fighters had buckets and fire hooks.Hand-powered pumpers developed in 1720Steam-powered pumpers developed in 1829
13 Fire Equipment (2 of 2) Present-day equipment: 1Fire Equipment (2 of 2)Present-day equipment:Single apparatus used for several purposesFire hydrants developed in 1817First public call boxes developed in 1860
14 1Communications (1 of 2)Fire wardens and night watchmen used during colonial periodTelegraph alarm systems developed in late 1800sPresent day:Hardwired and cellular telephonesComputer-aided dispatch facilities
15 Communications (2 of 2) Fireground communications 1 Early days: Chief’s trumpet (bugles), now a symbol of authorityPresent: Two-way radios
16 Building Codes (1 of 2) History of Building Codes 1 Egyptians used codes to prevent collapseColonial communities had few codesEarly construction in U.S. was primarily woodBoston required non-combustible roofs (1678)Present codes address construction materials and “built-in” protection
17 1Building Codes (2 of 2)Codes and standards are written by national organizations.NFPAVolunteer committees research and develop proposals.Most codes today are consensus documents.
18 Paying for Fire Service 1Paying for Fire ServiceIn early times, insurance companies paid fire departments for service.Career departments are generally funded through local tax funds.Volunteer departments are funded by:DonationsTax dollars
19 Training and Education 1Training and EducationOriginally, little was required beyond muscular strength and endurance.Requirements have increased as fire suppression has become more complicated and technical.
20 Organization of the Fire Service 1Organization of the Fire ServiceSource of authorityLocal governmentsSometimes from state and federal governmentsFire chief accountable to the governing body
21 Basic Principles of Organization (1 of 3) Unity of commandEach fire fighter answers to only one supervisorEstablishes a direct route of responsibilitySpan of controlNumber of people one person can supervise effectively
22 Basic Principles of Organization (2 of 3) 1Basic Principles of Organization (2 of 3)The organization of a typical fire department.
23 Basic Principles of Organization (3 of 3) 1Basic Principles of Organization (3 of 3)Division of laborOrganizing an incident by breaking down overall strategyMakes individual responsible for completing the assigned taskPrevents duplicate job assignmentsDisciplineGuidelines that a department establishes for fire fighters
24 1Chain of Command (1 of 4)Structure for managing the department and the fireground operationsRanks may vary by department, but the concept is the same
25 Chain of Command (2 of 4) Lieutenant Captain Battalion chief 1 Responsible for a single company on a single shiftCaptainResponsible for company on his/her shift and for coordinating company’s activities with other shiftsBattalion chiefCoordinates activities of several companies in a defined geographic area
26 Chain of Command (3 of 4) Assistant or division chief 1Chain of Command (3 of 4)Assistant or division chiefIn charge of a functional area within the departmentChief of the departmentOverall responsibility for administration and operations of the department
27 Chain of Command (4 of 4) Used to implement department policies 1Chain of Command (4 of 4)Used to implement department policiesEnsures that a given task is carried out in a uniform manner
28 Company Types (1 of 3) Engine 1 Secures water source, deploys handlines, conducts search-and-rescue operations, and puts water on the fire
29 Company Types (2 of 3) Truck Rescue 1 Specializes in forcible entry, ventilation, roof operations, search-and-rescue operations above the fire, and deployment of ground ladders.RescueRescues victims from fires, confined spaces, trenches, and high-angle situations
30 Company Types (3 of 3) Wildland brush Hazardous materials EMS 1 Dispatched to wildland and brush fires that larger engines cannot reachHazardous materialsResponds to and controls scenes involving spilled or leaking hazardous materialsEMSRespond to and assist in transporting victims to medical facilities
31 Other Views of Organization 1Other Views of OrganizationFunctionBureau or officeApparatus typeGeographyDepartments and stations are responsible for distinct geographic areasStaffingDepartment must have sufficient trained personnel available
32 General Roles within the Department (1 of 2) Fire fighterDriver/operatorCompany officerSafety officerTraining officerIncident CommanderFire marshal/ inspector/investigatorFire and life safety education specialist
33 General Roles within the Department (2 of 2) 1General Roles within the Department (2 of 2)9-1-1 dispatcher/ telecommunicatorApparatus maintenance personnelFire policeInformation managementPublic information officerFire protection engineer
35 Regulations, Policies, and SOPs (1 of 3) Detailed rules that implement a law passed by a governmental bodyPoliciesOutline what is expected in stated conditionsIssued by a department to provide guidelines for its actions
36 Regulations, Policies, and SOPs (2 of 3) 1Regulations, Policies, and SOPs (2 of 3)SOPs:Provide specific information on actions that should be taken to accomplish a taskEnsure that all members perform a task in the same mannerProvide a uniform way to deal with situationsMay also be called standard operating guidelines (SOGs)
37 Regulations, Policies, and SOPs (3 of 3) 1Regulations, Policies, and SOPs (3 of 3)A sample Standard Operating Procedure.
38 Working with Other Organizations 1Working with Other OrganizationsFire departments need to interact with other organizations in the community.Law enforcementEMSThe militaryIncident Management System (IMS)Unified command systemMeans to control multiple agencies at an incident
39 Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter I (1 of 5) Don and doff personal protective equipment properly.Hoist hand tools using appropriate ropes and knots.Understand and correctly apply appropriate communication protocols.Use SCBA.
40 Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter I (2 of 5) 1Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter I (2 of 5)Respond on apparatus to an emergency scene.Force entry into a structure.Exit a hazardous area safely as a team.Set up ground ladders safely and correctly.
41 Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter I (3 of 5) 1Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter I (3 of 5)Attack a passenger vehicle fire, an exterior Class A fire, and an interior structure fire.Conduct search and rescue in a structure.Perform ventilation of an involved structure.Overhaul a fire scene.
42 Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter I (4 of 5) 1Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter I (4 of 5)Conserve property with salvage tools and equipment.Connect a fire department engine to a water supply.Extinguish Class A, Class B, Class C, and Class D fires.Illuminate an emergency scene.
43 Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter I (5 of 5) 1Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter I (5 of 5)Turn off utilities.Perform fire safety surveys.Clean and maintain equipment.Present fire safety information to station visitors, community groups, or schools.
44 Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter II (1 of 2) Coordinate an interior attack line team.Extinguish an ignitable liquid fire.Control a flammable gas cylinder fire.Protect evidence of fire cause and origin.Assess and disentangle victims from motor vehicle accidents.
45 Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter II (2 of 2) 1Roles and Responsibilities of the Fire Fighter II (2 of 2)Assist special rescue team operations.Perform annual service tests on fire hose.Test the operability of and flow from a fire hydrant.
46 Fire Fighter Guidelines 1Fire Fighter GuidelinesBe safe.Follow orders.Work as a team.Think!Follow the Golden Rule.
47 1Summary (1 of 3)The fire service traces its roots back to Roman times.The U.S. fire service goes back to the colonial days.
48 Summary (2 of 3) Most departments employ a chain of command. 1Summary (2 of 3)Most departments employ a chain of command.Regulations, policies, and SOPs provide uniformity and consistent performance.Fire departments need to work with other organizations to get the job done.
49 Summary (3 of 3) Remember the five guidelines: Be safe. Follow orders. 1Summary (3 of 3)Remember the five guidelines:Be safe.Follow orders.Work as a team.Think!Follow the Golden Rule.