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1 Developing a German grammar for analysis and generation using OpenCCG Ciprian Gerstenberger University of Saarland IGK Colloquium January 13th 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Developing a German grammar for analysis and generation using OpenCCG Ciprian Gerstenberger University of Saarland IGK Colloquium January 13th 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Developing a German grammar for analysis and generation using OpenCCG Ciprian Gerstenberger University of Saarland IGK Colloquium January 13th 2005

2 2 Outline 1.NLP environments: a comparison 2.The choice: OpenCCG 3.The formalism: MMCCG 4.The German grammar 5.Future work

3 3 Dialogue systems building dialogue systems linguistic resources linguistic resources tools for developing and maintaining wide range of different NLP environments Which is the most appropriate environment for our purposes?

4 4 NLP environments for dialogue systems General requirements both for analysis and generation multi-lingual easy domain reconfigurability Requirements for NLG realization of contextually sensitive utterances linguistically motivated control over flexible sentence realization

5 5 NLP environments for dialogue systems Technical requirements freely available well documented offering support when needed freely available resources (for German) efficient platform independent

6 6 NLP environments KPML (Lisp): Systemic-Functional Grammar (SFG) OpenCCG (Java): Multi-Modal Combinatory Categorial Grammar (MMCCG) Babel (Prolog): Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) LKB (Lisp): Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) XLE (C): Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) XTAG (Lisp): Tree Adjoning Grammar (TAG) XDG (Oz): Topological Dependency Grammar (TDG)

7 7 NLP environments: Babel Babel-System (S. Müller) implementing HPSG Prolog only analysis, no generation multi-lingual (?) resources for German: grammar with good coverage freely available documentation support (?)

8 8 NLP environments: LKB LKB implementing HPSG Lisp multi-lingual both analysis and generation but: resources for German not usable for generation freely available documentation support (?)

9 9 NLP environments: XTAG XTAG implementing TAG Lisp both analysis and generation multi-lingual resources for German (DFKI ?) freely available documentation support (?)

10 10 NLP environments: XDG XDG implementing TDG Oz only analysis (generation as dependency parsing using TAGs) multi-lingual (?) resources for German (toy grammars) freely available documentation (?) support

11 11 NLP environments: KPML KOMET-Penman Multilingual Linguistic resource development implementing Systemic-Functional Grammar (SFG) Lisp multi-lingual flexible generation good sentence realization control only for generation, no parsing resources for German: grammar with good coverage freely available documentation and support

12 12 NLP environments: XLE Xerox Linguistic Environment implementing LFG C and Tcl/Tk multi-lingual both analysis and generation resources for German (not freely available) documentation support not freely available

13 13 NLP environments: OpenCCG OpenCCG implementing Multi-Modal Combinatory Categorial Grammar (MMCCG) open source Java-based NLP library both analysis and generation multi-lingual no resources for German, but grammars for English freely available documentation support

14 14 NLP environments: The Choice OpenCCG Java-based NLP library platform independent analysis and generation uniform grammar resources multi-lingual extendable used and in use in several other projects: FLIGHTS, COMIC, COSY supporting output format for TTS (e.g. APML) optimized sentence realization flexible generation sentence realization control

15 15 Basic formalism: CCG Combinatory Categorial Grammar lexicalized grammar formalism lexical items are assigned syntactic categories combinatory rules

16 16 MMCCG Multi-Modal Combinatory Categorial Grammar refining CCG by introducing means of controlling the application of combinatory rules specifying modes on category forming operators (slashes) making application of rules dependent on the slash mode four basic modes governing different levels of associativity and permutativity

17 17 Example Der Hund sieht die Katze.

18 18 Example (cont.) Der Hund sieht die Katze.

19 19 Developing a German Grammar joint work with Magdalena Wolska (DIALOG Project) Desiderata uniform resources for analysis and generation covering all phenomena in our domains achieve more generality of the grammar than wrt phenomena encountered in our (relatively small) corpora

20 20 Phenomena Some phenomena in German agreement position of the finite verb Topological Fields: controlling the Vorfeld complex sentences ambiguity controlling sentence realization

21 21 Lexical forms

22 22 Agreement

23 23 Agreement (cont.)

24 24 Agreement/Complex sentences

25 25 Clause types Verb-initial clauses yes/no questions: Soll ich die den Titel zu der Liste hinzufügen? alternative questions: Möchtest Du Mozart oder Bach hören? imperatives: Wähle das Album Californication von den Red Hot Chili Peppers!

26 26 Clause types (cont.) Verb-second clauses main declarative: Der Titel wurde hinzugefügt. wh-question: Welcher Künstler spielt Missunderstood?

27 27 Clause types (cont.) Verb-final clauses subordinate clause: Wenn Sie möchten, kann ich We Just Can´t Get Enough CCG abspielen. relative clause: Ich nehme aus den ersten vier Alben, die du hast, jeweils den ersten Song. complement clause: Ich glaube, daß das Album Dangerously In Love heißt.

28 28 Topological Fields Controlling the Vorfeld occupation using flags

29 29 Topological Fields (cont.) Controlling the Vorfeld occupation using flags

30 30 Analysis: Ambiguities Der Hund von dem traurigen Mann den ich sah rennt.

31 31 Analysis: Ambiguities (cont.) Das Kind rennt wenn der Hund rennt weil die Katze rennt.

32 32 Generation Sentence realization without control

33 33 Generation (cont.) Sentence realization with control: fronted subject

34 34 Generation (cont.) Sentence realization with control: fronted object

35 35 Future Work (1) extending the grammar wrt the two domain currently modelled (MP3 and maths tutorial) (AP, NP, sentence, etc.) coordination complex NP (e.g. postmodifications) control and raising verbs particle verbs (Ich spiele den Song ab vs. Ich möchte den Song abspielen) Topological Fields: scrambling in the Mittelfeld

36 36 Future Work (2) analysis: coping with partial input, ill-formed utterances generation: realizing elliptical output using a dynamic morphological module development of an ontology


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