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Chapter 1 Science Skills

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

A. Science From Curiosity Curiosity 1. What is science? It is a system of knowledge and the methods you use to find that knowledge. Science begins with curiosity and often ends with discovery.

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

B. Science and Technology 1. What is technology? It is the use of knowledge to solve practical problems. 2. What is the goal of science and technology? The goal of science is to expand knowledge. The goal of technology is to apply that knowledge.

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

3. How is science and technology are related? Science and technology are interdependent. Advances in one lead to advances in the other.

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

C. Branches of Science 1. What are the two divisions of science? a. Social science b. Natural science

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

2. What are the three branches of natural science? a. Physical science b. Earth and space science c. Life science

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

3. What is physical science? It covers a broad range of study that focuses on nonliving things. 4. What are the two main areas of physical science? a. Chemistry study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter. b. Physics the study of matter and energy and the interactions between the two through forces and motion.

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

5. What is Earth science? It is the application of physics and chemistry to the study of Earth. 6. What are the different foundations of Earth science? a. Geology the study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth. b. Meteorology the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

c. Oceanography also known as oceanology and marine science, is the branch of that studies the ocean d. Astronomy The study of the universe beyond Earth, including the sun, moon, planets, and stars 7. What is life science? It is the study of living things known as biology. It is not only the physics and chemistry of living things, but the study of the origin and behavior of living things.

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

D. The Big Ideas of Physical Science 1. What are the big ideas of physical science? a. Space and time b. Matter and change c. Forces and Motion d. Energy

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**Chapter 1 Section 1, What is Science?**

E. Science and Your Perspective The information in this book represents up-to-date models of how the universe works. However, like all models, some of these models will be rejected and replaced in the future.

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**Chapter 1 Section 1.1 Assessment**

Reviewing Concepts Do all five questions. Critical Thinking Do number 6.

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

Scientific Methods What is Scientific Method? It is an organized plan for gathering, organizing and communicating information. 2. What is the goal of any scientific method? It is to solve a problem or to better understand an observed event.

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

Scientific Methods 3. What are the steps in scientific methods?

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

Making Observations information that you obtain through your senses. Forming a Hypothesis It is a proposed answer to a question. Testing a Hypothesis (Experiment) It is a method to test your hypothesis.

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

4. Drawing Conclusions Based on your data, does it support your hypothesis. If not, a new experiment must then be designed to test the revised or new hypothesis. 5. Developing a Theory It is a well-tested explanation for a set of observations or experimental results. (Scientific Theory)

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

4. What are the two groups in an experiment? Controlled group an experiment in which only one variable is deliberately changed. Standard, uncontrolled, basic group only by chance something will happen. 5. What are the three variables in an experiment? Manipulated variable the variable that causes a change in another. Responding variable the variable that changes in response to manipulated variable. Controlled variable the variable that is not changed

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

6. Mr. Roznowski will give an example.

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

B. Scientific laws What is a scientific law? It is a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature. It describes an observed pattern in nature without attempting to explain it. Remember a theory never ever becomes a law!

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

C. Scientific Models 1. What is a model? It representation of an object or event. 2. What do scientific models do for us? They make it easier to understand things that might be too difficult to observe directly.

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

3. What are the types of scientific models? Physical models represent objects Mental models represent ideas

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**Chapter 1 Section 2, Using a Scientific Approach**

D. Working safely in Science Before you start any activity, read all the steps. Make sure that you understand the entire procedure, especially any safety precautions that must be followed. The single most important rule for your safety is simple: Always follow your teacher’s instructions and the textbook directions exactly. If you are in doubt about any step in an activity, always ask your teacher for an explanation.

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**Chapter 1 Section 2 Assessment**

Reviewing concepts 1 to 5 Critical Thinking 7 Section 1.2 Using a Scientific Approach

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

A. Using Scientific Notation 1. What is Scientific notation? It is a way of expressing a value as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10. Scientific notation makes very large or very small numbers easier to work with. Practice on the worksheet

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

2. When multiplying numbers written in scientific notation, you multiply the numbers that appear before the multiplication signs and add the exponents. (without scientific calculators) 3. When dividing numbers written in scientific notation, you divide the numbers that appear before the exponential terms and subtract the exponents. (without scientific calculators) Page 15, Math Skills Page 15 Math Practice Practice on Worksheet

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

4. When adding numbers written in scientific notation, the exponents must first be the same,. (without scientific calculators) 5. When subtracting numbers written in scientific notation, the exponents must first be the same,. (without scientific calculators) Practice on Worksheet

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

B. SI Units of Measurement What is SI? The abbreviation stands for the French name Systeme International d’Unites. It is the revised version of the metric system. 2. What are the base units of SI?

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

Quantity Unit Symbol Length Meter m Mass Kilogram kg Temperature Kelvin K Time Second s Amount of substance Mole mol Electric current Ampere A Luminous intensity Candela cd

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

2. What are the Metric prefixes? Prefix Symbol Meaning Multiply unit by Giga G Billion (109) 1,000,000,000 Mega M Million (106) 1,000,000 Kilo K Thousand (103) 1,000 DECI D Tenth (10-1) 0.1 Centi C Hundredth (10-2) 0.01 Milli Thousandth (10-3) 0.001 Micro Μ Millionth (10-6) Nano N Billionth (10-9)

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

Pass out worksheets on Metric conversion. C. Limits of Measurement What is Precision? It is a gauge of how exact a measurement is. 2. What is Accuracy? It is the closeness of a measurement to the actual value of what is being measured.

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

Low Accuracy High Accuracy High Accuracy High Precision Low Precision High Precision

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

3. What are Significant figures? They are all the digits that are known in a measurement, plus the last digit that is estimated. Your answer can not be anymore significant that your least significant value!

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

4. What method do we use to determine the number of significant figures? The Atlantic/Pacific Rule for Determining Significant Figures 1) look for the presence, or not, of a decimal point - this will tell you which side to start counting from - Pacific: left - Atlantic: right

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

2) if there is a decimal point you start counting from the left side of the number starting from the very left side of the number, look for the first non-zero number count the first non-zero number and every number (0-9) after that example:

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

because there is a decimal point, we start from the left side of the equation → , and look for the first non-zero number count that number and every number after that regardless of what the number is (0-9) in this case there are 2 significant figures

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

3) if there is not a decimal point you start counting from the right side of the number starting from the very right side of the number, look for the first non-zero number count the first non-zero number and every number (0-9) after that example:

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

because there is a decimal point, we start from the right side of the equation , and look for the first non-zero number count that number and every number after that regardless of what the number is (0-9) in this case there are 3 significant figures 721000

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

D. Measuring Temperature 1. What is temperature? It is the degree of hotness or coldness of an object. It can be expressed in degrees Fahrenheit, degrees Celsius, or Kelvins. 2. What is a thermometer? It is an instrument that measures temperature, or how hot an object is.

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**Chapter 1 Section 3 Measurement**

3. How can you convert from one temperature scale to another? Given Fahrenheit, solving for Celsius C = 5/9(F-32) Given Celsius, Solving for Fahrenheit F = 9/5(C) + 32 Given Celsius, Solving for Kelvin K = C Pass out Worksheet Section 1.3 Assessment Critical Thinking 5 and 6 Math Practice 7 and 8

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**Chapter 1 Section 4 Presenting Scientific Data**

Organizing Data Statement Scientists accumulate vast amounts of data by observing events and making measurements. Scientists can organize their data by using data tables and graphs.

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**Chapter 1 Section 4 Presenting Scientific Data**

What are data tables? It is the simplest way to organize data. The table relates two variables. Manipulated variable Responding variable Look at Figure 20 on Page 22

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**Chapter 1 Section 4 Presenting Scientific Data**

2. What is a graph? A diagram showing the relation between variable quantities, typically of two variables, each measured along one of a pair of axes at right angles. The manipulated variable is generally plotted on the horizontal axis, or x-axis. The responding variable is plotted on the vertical axis, or y-axis, of the graph. The slope of this line is the ratio of a vertical change to the corresponding horizontal change. The formula for the slope of a line is Rise/Run.

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**Chapter 1 Section 4 Presenting Scientific Data**

3. What are the types of proportions in a graph? Direct proportion It is a relationship in which the ratio of two variables is constant. Look at figure 21 on page 23 Inverse proportion It is a relationship in which the product of two variables in a constant. Look at figure 22 on page 23

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**Chapter 1 Section 4 Presenting Scientific Data**

4. What are the different types of graphs? Line graph Bar Graph Circle Graph

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**Chapter 1 Section 4 Presenting Scientific Data**

B. Communicating Data A crucial part of any scientific investigation is reporting the results. Scientists can communicate results by writing in scientific journals or speaking at conferences. Different scientists may interpret the same data differently. Peer review encourages comments, suggestions, questions, and criticism from other scientists.

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**Chapter 1 Section 4 Assessment**

Reviewing Concepts 1 4 Critical Thinking 5 Data Analysis on page 24 Time for a test!

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