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Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Deverbal Nominalization- Constraints on copredication.

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Presentation on theme: "Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Deverbal Nominalization- Constraints on copredication."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Deverbal Nominalization- Constraints on copredication Regine Brandtner, M.A. University of Stuttgart, Germany SFB 732 / Project B1

2 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication

3 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication

4 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Klaus von Heusinger Project B1: Formation and Interpretation of derived nominals SFB 732: Incremental specification in context collaborative research centre established in 2006 funded by the German National Science Foundation 14 research projects, about 40 researchers (Institute of Natural Language Processing & Institute of Linguistics)

5 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Introduction to deverbal –ung nominals in German: Base mostly transitive verbs, often prefixed: e.g. Absperrung obstruction no modal or auxiliary verbs: e.g. *Seiung being, *Wollung wanting

6 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Introduction to deverbal –ung nominals in German: Semantics Entführung kidnapping Absperrung obstruction Einladung invitation Zahlung payment Lüftung air conditioning Unterführung underpass Bedienung waitress Verwaltung administration EVENT RESULT STATE / OBJECT INFO OBJECT (Medium) RESULT (abstract) MEANS LOCATION AGENT COLLECTIVE

7 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Introduction to deverbal –ung nominals in German: Indicators for these readings: Event and process indicators: Time frame predicates: beginnen/ abschließen begin/ complete Duration: hat 6 Monate gedauert lasted 6 months Dates: am 7.Juli July 7th Process modifying predicates: vorsichtig cautious Iteration: permanent/ wiederholt permanent/ repeated

8 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Introduction to deverbal –ung nominals in German: Indicators for these readings: Result object indicators: Physical change: überreichen / erscheinen present/ appear Location: auf dem Tisch liegen / vorliegen lie on the table/ be available Size, shape etc.: lang, hoch, rot sein be long, high, red (based on Ehrich & Rapp 2000)

9 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Special issue: Copredication Two of these indicators are in conflict (1) Die [langwierige]EV Übersetzung [brachte mir viel Geld]RE. The tedious translation earned me a lot of money. (2) Die [am Montag durchgeführte]EV Messung [belegt]RE, dass der Grenzwert überschritten wurde. The measurement conducted on Monday shows that the critical value was exceeded.

10 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Classification of the phenomenon nominalization Ambiguity ? Selection of an interpretation out of a given set of senses while cancelling the others Question: do we really want to establish a theory where a once disambiguated lexical item itself is allowed to change in context? Implication: two disambiguation processes in a row, hence one predication must fail or the nominalization would have to be shifted

11 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Classification of the phenomenon nominalization Underspecification / dot objects / local disambiguation? (Bierwisch, Pustejovsky, Solstad & Rossdeutscher) No cancellation of the other options (after the first disambiguation) focus on one of them (others available for reference in the ongoing discourse) Implication: copredication is not a paradox, every combination should be possible

12 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Underspecification Question: what about examples like (3) and (4): (3)?Die Absperrung [aus Holz] RE [hat drei Tage gedauert] EV. The wooden obstruction has taken three days. (4)?Die [gemeinsame] EV Bemalung [hat Flecken] RE. The collective painting has stains.

13 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Copredication Two main issues: Underspecification has a solution for A), But: we have to define constraints for copredication A) Predication conflict (concerning the nominals IP in context) B) Constraints on the combinations of indicators

14 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Global constraints on copredication Combination of different types: (5)??Die Leitung der Anwaltskanzlei ist [schwierig]EV.Sie hat [angerufen]agentive The management of the law firm is difficult.It has called. (6)?? Die teure Reinigung [der Kleider]EV [liegt in der Innenstadt]locative. The expensive dry cleaning of the clothes is located in the city centre.

15 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Global constraints on copredication Combination of different types: But: (8)Die Übersetzung war [langwierig]EV … a. und [fehlerlos]Info b. und [liegt jetzt auf dem Tisch]medium. The translation was tedious and faultless/and is on the table now. (7)?Die [regelmäßige]EV Lüftung des Kinderzimmers ist wichtig, aber [kaputt]means. The regular ventilation of the nursery is important, but damaged.

16 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data Compare: (10)?Die einfache Übersetzung brachte mir viel Geld ein. The easy translation earned me a lot of money. (9)Die [langwierige] EV Übersetzung [brachte mir viel Geld] RE The tedious translation earned me a lot of money. causal relation between the manner of the event and the resulting object

17 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data (10)?Die einfache Übersetzung brachte mir viel Geld ein. The easy translation earned me a lot of money. Repair / Accomodation: (10)Die einfache Übersetzung brachte mir dennoch viel Geld ein. The easy translation still earned me a lot of money.

18 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data (11)Die [abblätternde]RE Bemalung [wurde schlampig durchgeführt]EV. The peeling painting (of the wall) was conducted negligently. Causal relation Compare: (11)?Die abblätternde Bemalung [dauerte 4 Stunden]EV. The peeling painting (of the wall) took four hours.

19 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data (12)?Die abblätternde Bemalung [dauerte 4 Stunden]EV. The peeling painting (of the wall) took four hours. Repair / Accomodation: (12)Die abblätternde Bemalung [dauerte dennoch 4 h]EV. The peeling painting (of the wall) still took four hours.

20 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data (13)Die [täuschend echte]RE Fälschung [dauerte lange]EV. The deceptively real-looking imitation took a long time. Compare (13)?Die [schlechte]RE Fälschung [dauerte lange]EV. The bad imitation took a long time.

21 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data (13)?Die [schlechte]RE Fälschung [dauerte lange]EV. The bad imitation took a long time. Repair /Accomodation (13)Die [schlechte]RE Fälschung [dauerte dennoch lange]EV. The bad imitation still took a long time.

22 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data (15)Obwohl die Messung von Studenten [durchgeführt wurde]EV ist sie sehr [aussagekräftig]RE. Although the measurement was conducted by students it is very significant. Other repairs (14) Lunch was delicious, but took forever. (Asher 2007)

23 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data Simple nouns: (13) ?The newspaper was founded in 1878 and is printed in Frankfurt. (13) The newspaper was founded in 1878 and is typed in Sütterlin. Repair / Accommodation: (13)The newspaper was founded in 1878 and is still typed in Sütterlin.

24 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data (14)?Die Übersetzung [liegt auf dem Tisch]RE - sie hat [6 Monate gedauert]EV. The translation was on the table - it had taken 6 months. Repair / Accommodation: (14)Die Übersetzung [liegt endlich auf dem Tisch]RE sie hat wirklich [6 Monate gedauert]EV. The translation was finally on the table it had really taken 6 months. Expected narration structure violated

25 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Local constraints on copredication – some data (15)Die Übersetzung war [langwierig]EV und [liegt jetzt endlich auf dem Tisch]RE. The translation was tedious and is finally on the table now. (16)Die Übersetzung war [langwierig]EV, [liegt jetzt aber endlich auf dem Tisch]RE. The translation was tedious, but is finally on the table now. Construction of a relation between the manner of a past event and the present

26 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Aims and open questions: Evaluate existing theories on nominalization and polysemy concerning copredication Make the constraints on copredication more explicit Verify the acceptability of the examples by questionnaires Collect more real examples from corpora ? Which indicators do you use? ? (How) can we search for copredication examples directly? ? Comments / suggestions / severe criticism? THANK YOU!!

27 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication References: Asher, N A web of words: Lexical meaning in context. Ms., UT-Austin Bierwisch, M Event Nominalization: Proposals and Problems. In: W. Motsch (ed.). Wortstruktur und Satzstruktur. Berlin, Brandtner, R Meaning Transfer and the Compositional Semantics of Nominalizations. In: SinSpeC. Working Papers of the SFB 732 "Incremental Specification in Context", ed. Florian Schäfer. Online Publikationsverbund der Universität Stuttgart (OPUS) Brandtner, R. & von Heusinger, K. (submitted). Nominalization in Context - Conflicting Readings and Predicate Transfer. submitted to: Artemis Alexiadou &Monika Rathert (eds.). Nominalizations across Languages and Frameworks. Berlin: deGruyter (Interface explorations) Cruse, D. A Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. New York: Oxford University Press Ehrich, V. & Rapp, I Sortale Bedeutung und Argumentstruktur: ung- Nominalisierungen im Deutschen. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 19:

28 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Heid, U. et al Indicators for sortal readings of German nominalizations with –ung: properties and extraction from corpora. Paper presented at the SFB 732 colloquium Theoretical and Computational Perspectives on Underspecification, University of Stuttgart, Nunberg, G The Pragmatics of Deferred Interpretation. In: The Handbook of Pragmatics, eds. Laurence Horn & Gregory Ward, Oxford: Blackwell Pustejovsky, J The Generative Lexicon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Roßdeutscher, A., Kamp, H., Solstad, T. & Reyle, U Lexical and supra- lexical underspecification rooted in a dm-based theory of word formation. Paper presented at the SFB 732 colloquium Theoretical and Computational Perspectives on Underspecification, Universität Stuttgart, Solstad, T Constructing anaphoric relations. Manuskript, Universität Stuttgart Weiland, H "Empirische Untersuchungen zu pragmatischen Bedingungen für Bedeutungsverschiebungen im Deutschen". Magisterarbeit, Universität Stuttgart

29 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Appendix: An alternative analysis of copredication (using Nunbergs predicate transfer) Nunbergs predicate transfer (1)i.I am parked out back. ii.I am {the owner of a car that is parked out back} predicate transfer on the VP instead of shift on the pronoun (Nunberg 2004) Test for transfer position: (2)i. Ij am {the owner of a car that is parked out back}j and have been waitingj for 15 minutes. ii.#I am {the owner of a cari that is parked out back} and may not starti.

30 Institute for Linguistics Stuttgart University Regine Brandtner (SFB 732) Constraints on copredication Copredication with simple nouns (Nunberg 2004): (3)i.Roth is [Jewish]person and [widely read]books. ii.Roth is Jewish and {a person whose books are [widely read] books} person Application to derived nominals (Brandtner & von Heusinger) Second indicator is enriched to match the requirements of the first one: (4)i.Die [am Montag durchgeführte]EV Messung [belegt]RE, dass... The measurement conducted on Monday shows that … ii.Die [am Montag durchgeführte]EV Messung {hat Resultate, die [belegen]RE }EV, dass... {has results that [show]...} Only one interpretation for the nominal


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