Presentation on theme: " The scientific study of human – social activity. The systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society. Study of society."— Presentation transcript:
The scientific study of human – social activity. The systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society. Study of society.
The scientific study of human – social activity. Scientific/systematic Humans Social Activity _____________________ Quantitative (numerical) & Qualitative – (field & naturalistic studies) research… Scientific/systematic represents methods. There are 4 major methods in sociology: Surveys Experiments Participant Observation or observation Existing Resources or secondary analysis
1. Humans 2. Social Activity 1. Sociologists are interested in Humans: Groups and individuals (students, police officers, criminals, doctors, judges, nurses, etc). 2. Social Activity: What are people doing. How are they arranged? Who is the leader? Structure with the group?
Role: Behaviors and expectations connected to social positions (what do students do? What do professors do? What do coaches do?). Status: Social Positions that we occupy in relations to others (student and professor are statuses). Put simply: socially defined position.
Social structure guides our behavior. Social structure is connected to order, organization and patterned relationships. Structure gives shape to family life, college class rooms, court rooms, restaurants, etc.
A theory is a statement of why and how specific facts are related. Theories help explain certain social phenomena, like crime, self esteem, isolation, suicide, homelessness, etc. The job of theory is to explain. Provide an explanation of some social phenomena under study…
Durkheim’s classic theory of social integration as it relates to suicide. Social bonding.
Theoretical Paradigm: a set of fundamental assumptions about the operation of society. Paradigms may also be viewed as an image of society --- a view of society. The assumptions guide our: Thinking & Research There are 3-major assumptions (paradigms) in sociology: 1. Structural Functional or Functionalist Perspective 2. Social Conflict or Conflict Perspective. 3. Symbolic Interaction or Interactionist Perspective.
Functionalist assume that society is a complex system, whose parts work together – to create stability for the whole of society. Parts refer to institutions. What is the function of: Family School Religion
Functionalists are interested in balance & equilibrium. Social Dysfunctions: social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society. Another institution would develop to combat crime: the Criminal Justice System (CJS) Family Crime (dysfunctional) Politics
A. Social Conflict assumes that society is a complex system; it is characterized by inequality and conflict --- inequality and conflict are designed to generate social change. B. Society is not stable; it is full of contradictions, inequalities and conflicts.
Conflict theorists investigate how race, gender, religion, class, age, etc. are (all) linked to an unequal distribution of resources. By resources we mean: wealth, power, prestige, schooling, land, etc. Generally, some group has more than another (men have more than women, whites have more than Latinos). Social systems benefits some (rich) while depriving and exploiting others (poor)…
Change: How does change occur? For Marx, change occurs by protest, strikes, revolutions, war, etc. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955): Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks.
Symbolic Interactionist assume that society is a product of everyday interactions among individuals. So, what is being produced? The product becomes “the definition of the situations.”
Focus: How people act towards one another, and how they make sense of those interactions. People create & change their social world through symbols Symbols are anything that carry meaning (signs, gestures, pictures, etc) Joy Pain Flirt Secret
Macro Level of Analysis : Functionalist Perspective -- Social Conflict -- Micro Level of Analysis : Symbolic Interaction --