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Bio217: Pathophysiology Class Notes Professor Linda Falkow

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1 Bio217: Pathophysiology Class Notes Professor Linda Falkow
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Bio217: Pathophysiology Class Notes Professor Linda Falkow Unit V: Endocrine System Disorders Chap. 17: Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation Chap. 18: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation

2 Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation Chapter 17

3 The Endocrine System Components Functions
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 The Endocrine System Components Glands located around the body that secrete chemical messengers (_________) Functions Works with _______to regulate and integrate metabolism and maintain homeostasis Functions: Stimulation of growth and development Coordination of the male and female reproductive system Maintenance of internal environment Adaptation to emergency demands of body

4 Hypothalamus (“heart of the endocrine system”)
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Hypothalamus (“heart of the endocrine system”) Center for integrating endocrine and ANS Regulates endocrine glands via _________and ___________ pathways Posterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary (neural pathways) (hormonal control) ADH (antidiuretic hormone) ACTH (adrenocorticotropic horm.) Oxytocin TSH (thyroid stim. hormone) LH (luteinizing hormone) FSH (follicle stim. hormone) also GH (growth horm.) and PRL (prolactin) ADH- causes water retention Oxytocin – stimulates uterine contractions during labor and milk secretion in lactating women

5 Negative Feedback- regulates the endocrine system by ________________ overproduction of hormones

6 Lipid-Soluble Hormones

7 Hormone Binding at Target Cell

8 Anterior Pituitary Hormones

9 Endocrine disorders May be caused by
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Endocrine disorders May be caused by Hypersecretion or hyposecretion of hormones Hyporesponsiveness of hormone receptors Gland inflammation Tumors of glands Hyper or hyposecretion may be in the hypothalamus or pituitary or target glands Hypersecretion  elevated levels Hyposecretion  decreased levels of hormones

10 Adrenal glands Embedded in fat superior to each kidney Adrenal cortex:
1. Aldosterone (_________________) – regulates Na+ reabsorption & excretion of K+ 2. Cortisol (______________) - stimulates gluconeogenesis - protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization -suppression of immune system - increased stress response - maintains BP and CV fcn. 3. Adrenal androgens & estrogens (_______________)

11 Aldosterone

12 Adrenal medulla Epinephrine & Norepinephrine (catecholemines)
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Adrenal medulla Epinephrine & Norepinephrine (catecholemines) - produce VC - _______ response (“fight or flight”) Epi = adrenalin Nepi = noradrenalin Release of catecholamines has been characterized as a “fight or flight” response Catecholamines promote hyperglycemia

13 Catecholamines

14 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Thyroid gland Located in anterior neck ; two lobes lie on either side of the trachea Secrete Iodine – containing hormones ____________ – nec. for growth & dev.; increase metabolism ____________ – regulates blood Ca++ levels Parathyroid glands 4 glands located on posterior aspect of thyroid Secrete _________ Regulates blood Ca++ levels 90% T4 and 10% T3 Calcitonin decreases blood Ca++ PTH increases blood Ca++

15 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

16 Endocrine Pancreas The pancreas is both an __________ and
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Endocrine Pancreas The pancreas is both an __________ and _________ gland Contains pancreatic islets (of Langerhans) Secretion of glucagon and insulin Cells Alpha—glucagon ( nec. when fasting _________ BG) Beta—insulin (released after a meal  _________BG, stim. protein syn. and fatty acid uptake & storage) Delta—somatostatin and gastrin F cells—pancreatic polypeptide

17 Endocrine Pancreas

18 Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Concept Check 1. Organs that respond to a particular hormone are called: A. target organs C. responder organs B. integrated organs D. hormone attach organs 2. The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by: A. Nerve impulses C. Regulating hormones B. PG D. None of the above 1. A 2. C

19 B. TSH D. All of the above are regulatory for thyroid homone secretion
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 3. In a negative feedback mechanism controlling thyroid hormone secretion, which is the nonregulatory hormone? A. TRH C. thyroxine B. TSH D. All of the above are regulatory for thyroid homone secretion Matching: ____ 4. ACTH a. Mammary glands ____ 5. TSH b. Adrenal cortex ____ 6. TRF c. Thyroid gland ____ 7. prolactin d. Ant. pit. Matching: a. Influence inflam. response ___ 8. Epi b. Causes fight or flight response ___ 9. Glucocorticoids c. Controls Na+, H+, K+ ___ 10. Mineralcorticoids d. Act as minor sex hormones ___ 11. Gonadocorticoids C 4. b c d 7. a B 9. a 10. c 11. d



22 Alterations of Hormonal Regulation
Chapter 18

23 Elevated or Depressed Hormone Levels
Failure of feedback systems Dysfunction of an endocrine gland Secretory cells are unable to produce, obtain, or convert hormone precursors The endocrine gland synthesizes or releases excessive amounts of hormone  abnormal hormone levels

24 Endocrine Disorders Pituitary disorder of water metabolism (diabetes insipidus) 3 Thyroid gland disorders (goiter, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism) Pancreatic disorder (diabetes mellitus: type 1 and type 2) 2 Adrenal disorders (Addisons’s and Cushing’s syndrome)

25 Elevated or Depressed Hormone Levels
Increased hormone degradation or inactivation Ectopic hormone release

26 Diseases of the Posterior Pituitary
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Diseases of the Posterior Pituitary Diabetes insipidus Deficiency of _________ (aka vasopressin) Polyuria (4-16 L/day) and polydipsia Partial or total inability to concentrate urine Causes: drugs or injury to posterior pituitary; lesions in hypothalamus, infundibulum or post. pit. Normally ADH is syn. in hypothalamus and stored in post. pit. ADH is released when plasma osmolality increases  increased permeability to dct and cd in kidney  increased reabsorption of water. When ADH is missing: results in increased excretion of water  large amt. of dilute urine Other causes: brain tumor, removal of pit. gland, aneurysm, thrombus, immunologic disorder, or infection

27 Diabetes Insipidus Pathophysiology: Treatment: replacement of ADH
Patients not able to concentrate urine Deficiency of ADH  ___________ vol. of dilute urine  ____________ if fluids are not replaced Treatment: replacement of ADH

28 Alterations of Thyroid Function
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Alterations of Thyroid Function Goiter = enlargement of thyroid gland not due to inflammation or neoplasm Classified as: nontoxic (increased demand for TH during adolescence, pregnancy or menopause) and toxic (due to long term nontoxic, occurs in elderly) Please pass the iodine Endemic goiter due to insufficient dietary iodine  insufficient production of TH Too much of a good thing Sporadic goiter due to ingestion of goitrogenic foods* ( inhibit thyroxine) or drugs Goiter belts- areas of Midwest, NW, and Great Lakes where high incidence of endemic goiter occurs (I- deficient soil and water) Goitogenic foods = rutabegas, cabbage, cabbage, soybeans, pnuts, peaches, peas, strawberries, spinach, radishes Goitrogenic drugs – propylthiouracil, iodides, aminosalicylic acid, cobalt, lithium

29 Goiter Pathophysiology
Decreased iodine plus impaired synthesis of TH  responsiveness of thyroid to TSH Increased mass and cell activity may overcome mild thyroid impairment (Patient has goiter but normal fcn.) If severe impairment  goiter and hypothyroidism

30 Alterations of Thyroid Function

31 Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis (Graves Disease)

32 Graves’ Disease How grave is Graves’ disease?
Graves’ disease is most common type Autoimmune, years old, family history of thyroid abnormalities Thyroid-stimulating antibodies bind to TSH receptors Thyroid storm (thyrotoxic crisis) Overproduction of T3 and T4  increased SNS activity ( tachycardia, vascular collapse, hypotension, coma, death)

33 Graves’ disease Signs & Symptoms Enlarged thyroid
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Graves’ disease Signs & Symptoms Enlarged thyroid Exophthalmos (_______________) Nervousness, weight loss w/ increased appetite Treatment Antithyroid drugs (propylthiouracil, methimazole) 131 I (radioactive iodine therapy) Surgery Lab tests for increased T3 and T4; TSH is low in primary hyperthyroidism, but high when excess TSH is cause; thyroid scan

34 Alterations of Thyroid Function
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Alterations of Thyroid Function Hypothyroidism Thyroid deficiency (decreased T3 and T4)  metabolic processes slow (may be problem with thyroid, pituitary, or hypothalamus) Primary hypothyroidism – due to disorder of thryoid Secondary hypothyroidism –due to failure to stimulate thyroid Causes: thyroidectomy, radiation, not enough TSH (from pituitary) or TRH (from hypothalamus) Symptoms: fatigue, wt. gain, facial puffiness, dry skin, bleeding tendencies TRH = thyroid stimulating releasing hormone

35 Pathophysiology Loss of thyroid tissue  decreased TH, increased TSH and goiter (primary) Decreased TSH from pituitary most commonly due to tumors (secondary) Myxedema- composition of dermis is changed (puffiness) Myxedema coma - depressed respiratory system , decreased cardiac output, bradycardia & hypotension Treatment: TH replacement gradually (levothyroxine)

36 Hypothyroidism

37 Diabetes Mellitus Body does not produce or use _________ properly
Results in hyperglycemia Type 1 (IDDM = insulin-dependent) Type 2 (NIDDM = non-insulin-dependent)

38 Type 1 diabetes Pathophysiology (Type 1) Symptoms
Islet cell (beta cell) destruction  no insulin production Autoimmune (genetic & environmental) Nonautoimmune (idiopathic) Symptoms Lack of insulin ______________ occurs w/ 89-90% destruction of beta cells; excess glucagon by alpha cells Glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia Ketoacidosis due to fat and protein metabolism  DKA coma Treatment: Insulin, meal planning and exercise, Hb A1C

39 Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Pathophysiology Idopathic, genetic and environmental factors Insulin resistance in target tissues Overproduction of glucose via gluconeogenesis Obesity Symptoms Recurring skin infections Visual changes (blurred vision, retinopathy) Paresthesias Fatigue (poor eating) Treatment Personalized meal plan & exercise

40 Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
Hypoglycemia (insulin shock- decr. BG levels) Diabetic ketoacidosis _______ – dec. insulin levels elevated BG levels  fat mobilized Somogyi effect – hypoglycemia followed by hyperglycemia (rebound) Dawn phenomenon – early morning elevated BG

41 Diabetic Ketoacidosis

42 Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
Hyperglycemia Microvascular disease Retinopathy Diabetic nephropathy Macrovascular disease Coronary artery disease Stroke Peripheral arterial disease Diabetic neuropathies Infection

43 Alterations of Adrenal Function
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Alterations of Adrenal Function Disorders of the adrenal cortex Cushing disease Excessive anterior pituitary secretion of ________ Cushing syndrome Cluster of abnormalities due to excessive levels of cortisol (glucocorticoid) Wt. gain, muscle weakness, fatigue, buffalo hump, thin extremities, bruise easily Treatment: Radiation, drugs, surgery depending on cause

44 Cushing Disease Before onset of Cushing syndrome 4 months later

45 Addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency or hypofunction)
____________ mineralcorticoid, glucocorticoid, and androgen secretion Cause – usually from autoimmune process Idiopathic, TB, removal of adrenals, neoplasms, infections Adrenal crisis Inadequate or nonresponsive hormone therapy Extreme stress  hypoglycemia, hypotension  coma  death

46 Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Concept Check 1. Which clinical symptoms are shared by DM and diabetes inspidus? A. Elevated blood and urine glucose levels B. Inability to produce ADH C. Inability to produce insulin D. Polyuria 2. Graves disease is: A. Hyperthyroidism B. Associated with autoimmunity C. Characterized by ophthalmopathy D. All of the above 1. D 2. D

47 Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 3. A 24-year old female with a history of “juvenile onset” diabetes is found in a stupor. She has cold, clammy skin, what is most likely the cause of her condition? A. Hyperglycemia B. Insulin shock C. Renal failure D. retinopathy 4. Common signs and symptoms of DM include all of the following except: B. Blurred vision C. Increased muscle anabolism D. polyuria 3. B 4. C

48 Matching: ___ 5. Cushing disease A. Excess cortisol
Bio217 Fall2013 Unit 5 Matching: ___ 5. Cushing disease A. Excess cortisol ___ 6. Goiter B. Enlarged thyroid ___ 7. Addison disease C. Adrenal hypofunction 5. A 6. B 7. C

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