4 Static vs. Moving Electric Charges Recap Static electricity is electric charge that remains in a fixed position on an insulator and distributes itself over the entire surface of the conductor.Static electric charges can be transferred by friction, contact, and induction.
5 Static vs. Moving Electric Charges Current electricity is electrical charge that moves from a source of electrical energy in a controlled path through an electric circuit.The electrical energy of the moving electric charge can be converted into other desired forms of energy using different loads (light bulbs etc.)
6 Electrical Potential (Voltage) Have you ever wondered why you can touch some sources of electricity but not others?Such as:you can touch a battery end to end, but not a wall socket.This is due to the amount of electrical energy that is being given by the cellEnergy from the wall can be 80 times greater than that of a battery.
7 A Model of Electric Potential: AKA voltage We can relate the electric circuit to a watermillThink of water pouring on a watermill, there is only so much water in the bucket to pour on the water wheel, we can call this potential energy
8 A Model of Electric Potential: AKA voltage The energy (water) rotates the wheelThe same is seen by the dry cellThe energy in the dry cell or battery is called the electric potential energy, so there is only so much energy the battery can give, the energy released (electrons) allow the motor to turn.
9 VoltageA measure of the potential energy difference between 2 points in a circuit.Big voltage = lots of energy in the electronsThis can cause current to flow.Picture of Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was an Italian physicist known for the invention of the battery in the 1800s.
10 Electricity from Chemical Reactions Electric Potential:The energy that each electron possessesThis term is interchangeable with the term VoltageIts SI unit is a volt (V).Can be measured using a voltmeter
11 Electric CurrentIs a measure of the rate at which electric charges move past a given point in a circuit.The variable representing Current is IThe SI unit to measure electric current is A (ampere)Current is measured using an ammeter device which is connected to the circuitPicture of André-Marie Ampère from France!
16 Practicep438 #(4),5p447#3-6If you haven’t started yet p436#1-3
17 Electrochemical Cells There are 2 basic types of primary cells: The primary wet cell (voltaic cell) and the primary dry cell.In a primary cell:chemical reactions use up some of the materials in the cell as electrons move from it.
18 Primary Wet Cell Also called a Voltaic Cell developed by Alessandro Volta.Is called wet because it is made of two pieces of metal that are placed in a liquid.
19 Primary Wet CellThe 2 metal plates are what’s called electrodes and are usually copper and zincThe liquid the metals/electrodes are in is called the electrolyte, which is a liquid that can conduct a current.So what happens in the wet cell?
20 Primary Wet Cell The zinc plate is the negative terminal The copper plate is the positive terminalThe energy is only released when the cell is exposed to a closed electrical circuit
21 Primary Dry CellFunctions the same as a wet cell, except there is no liquid electrolyte, but a moist electrolyte paste/plateDry cells gradually discharge their energy over long periods of time, that’s why they have an expiry date.
22 Secondary Cells These are our rechargeable batteries Secondary refers to the fact that there are 2 chemical processes occurringTo discharge the cellTo recharge the cell to its original stateUsed in cars
23 Cells and Batteries: Costs and Benefits Cells are very convenient, act as a remote energy source.In voltaic cells the electrodes themselves are involved in the chemical reaction (with the electrolyte), so they can only supply so much energy before they are fully discharged.
24 Availability and Cost Resources Many substances are very rare and only found in certain areas of the world.Extracting minerals and elements can be an expensive process as well.Rechargeable batteries are used for almost every type of battery there is.Rechargeable batteries are much more expensive to manufacture and may not be worth purchasing fro low-use devices.
25 ToxicityMany of the substances used in cells and batteries are poisonousSuch as: lead, mercury, chlorine, Lithium, Sodium.The more batteries, the more these materials/substances are around us in our homes.
26 DisposalBoth rechargeable and single-use batteries have to be replaced.Usually people throw them in the trash and they go to the land fills.50% of the mercury found in landfills are from batteries.