2 Key idea on WJEC specification 1.6 Key question : What are the environmental challenges and solutions facing India?The causes and consequences of sustainable use of water resources
3 Case studiesHydro electricity on the Ganges The Tehri Dam ProjectConflict over water resources in Southern IndiaSustainable Water Management and the Swajal projectGanga Action plan to clean up the River Ganges and the Yamuna projectRainwater Harvesting
4 Sustainable Water Management in India :A perspective Defining Sustainable Water Management = The purpose of Sustainable Water Management (SWM) is simply to manage our water resources while taking into account the needs of present and future users
5 Hydro electricity on the Ganges – is it a sustainable energy source ? “Indian scientists and engineers has issued an urgent appeal to stop the building of a hydro-electricity project on the Ganges”. ( bbc news 2005)They say underground tunnels for the dam will mean that at least 60km of the river will disappear.
6 The development is called the :The Tehri Dam Project The Indian central government wants to build the 600 megawatt power HEP project in the Bhagirathi valley in the Himalayas, Northern India.But the engineers, environmentalists and scientists say the river will be irreparably harmed.They say that the dam - planned to be built at the source of the river - threatens its natural flow.
7 Why does India need the HEP project? India's electricity needs have been growing rapidly along with its fast growing economy.About a quarter of its power is provided from hydro-power plants.The government says new dams currently under construction will go a long way towards meeting outstanding energy needs to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.Rapid population growth, urbanization and industrialization will lead to a greater demand for an increasingly smaller supply of water resources in India.
8 Policies for sustainable water development To address the concerns of the Asian region, the World Water Council formed a Regional Water Vision 2025 for South Asia.Vision 2025 reflects the current position of South Asia on the sustainable development of their water resources: “Poverty in South Asia will be eradicated and living conditions of all people will be uplifted to sustainable levels of comfort, health and well-being through co-ordinated and integrated development and management of water resources in the region.”
9 Fact file on the HEP project The rivers Bhagirathi and Bhilangana rise in the Himalayas in north-western Uttar Pradesh and flow south to the plains as the Ganges.As part of a larger plan to trap the waters of the Upper Ganges basin, a three billion dollar clay core, rock fill dam is being constructed at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Bhilangana, close to the town of Tehri.The lake created by the dam will extend up to 45 kms in the Bhagirathi Valley and 25 km in the Bhilangana Valley.
10 What are the consequences associated with the dam ? The completed dam will displace 86,500 peopleIt will submerge several towns, among them the town of TehriThe region is vulnerable to earthquakes and the dam may be structurally incapable of withstanding them or may perhaps even cause themBoth the resettlement policies and the structural flaws of the dam have provoked civil protests, lawsuits and international attention that have repeatedly stalled the project.“This is a dam built with our tears” —Sunderlal Bahuguna
11 Dam creation unsustainability The traditional approach to solving competition issues has been to develop further water supplies with the construction of dams, reservoirs or other engineered structures.However, even this is becoming difficult since the remaining water resources are no longer easily accessible and readily developed at reasonable costs.
12 Health and environmental issues unsustainabilty issues There is a need to combat water supply and sanitation deficiencies, as well as a need to prevent pollution and manage extreme events such as floods and droughts.Negative impacts of past schemes: increased prevalence of mosquitoes, waterlogging and salinization of agricultural land, intrusion of salt water into aquifers, destruction of wetlands and loss of biodiversity.
13 What are the benefits of the HEP scheme? Projected benefits:Final installed capacity of 2000 MWAdditional irrigation to 270,000 hectaresStabilization to existing irrigation on 600,000 hectares270 million gallons of drinking water per day to Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi
14 Conflict over water resources in Southern India The southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu has filed a petition in the country's highest court seeking more water from the Cauvery River.Tamil Nadu is locked in a bitter dispute with neighbouring Karnataka over sharing water from the Cauvery - which flows through both states.
15 Facts from the BBC 2004 regarding the conflict in Southern India “Political parties and farmers' organisations in Karnataka have been protesting over the state government's decision to release water from the river”.“Most of the main political parties in the state have supported the strike call”.“Men from the Rapid Action Force, which specialises in controlling riots, will be deployed at several places on Thursday, said Bangalore's Police Commissioner HT Sangliana”
16 The Swajal project sustainable water resource project The Swajal Project, in Uttar Pradesh, funded by the World Bank, is a rural water supply and environmental sanitation development project which aims to make a difference in the lives of the poor communities of Uttar Pradesh.It provides access to water and sanitation facilities to villages in the hill and Bundelkhand regions.It increased the living standard in Indian rural areas through time savings and income opportunities for women, and improved health, hygiene and gender awareness for all.
18 How are the villagers involved ? Sustainability of the water supply and sanitation system depends on participation of the villages in all aspects of the development process, including planning and construction of the system, as well as its daily operation and maintenance.The cost sharing component of the project, requires the villages to carry 10% of the construction and 100% of the operation and maintenance costs, renders the full support of the communities essential to the project’s success.
19 Fact file of the project Total no. of villages covered: 26Total population covered: 33,846Total no. households covered: 6,507Piped water scheme: executed in 3 villagesTotal no. new hand pumps installed 81Total no. hand pumps repaired 45 Total no. toilets constructed 425Total no. compost pits constructed 14
20 Ganga Action plan to clean up the River Ganges `Ganga Action Plan bears no fruit'By Our Staff Reporter of the Hindu newspaper:“NEW DELHI, AUG Despite heavy investments towards cleaning the Ganga, pollution levels are just as terrifying as before.”
21 Why was the Ganga Action plan , launched in 1986 was unsustainable ? 1. There was a rise in pollution despite the construction of sewage treatment plants at Varanasi, as a result of poor power supply, faulty engineering and maintenance problems.2. According to environmentalists, about 90 per cent of pollution into the river is caused by sewage generation while only about 5 to 6 per cent can be blamed on bathing and other activities. "While the real sources of pollution -- sewage -- continues to flow into the river…
22 3. At Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh's industrial hub, tanneries regularly contaminate the Ganga with chrome, and yet chrome treatment plants set up by the Government lie unused.million litres of sewage is produced from Allahabad every day, but the city has the capacity to treat only 100 million litres before it spills into the river.
23 Rainwater HarvestingRainwater harvesting is the process of collecting, filtering and storing water from roof tops, paved and unpaved areas for multiple uses.The harvested water can also be used for drinking after treatment. The surplus water after usage can be used for recharging ground water aquifers.
24 Balisana Village, Patan District, Gujarat Rainwater harvesting project The crops they grow are laden with traces of fluoride. At present, almost all of the villagers from early to middle aged population are suffering from fluorosis or other fluoride related diseases. Six years back, the villagers started a community drive to solve the crisis, with help from Ahmedabad-based non governmental organisation, UTTHAN. The villagers started to desilt a 3.05 metre (m) long canal through which they diverted rainwater to a 300-year-old tank.
25 They hope to solve this problem by regularly recharging the groundwater table with rainwater. The villagers have evolved laws to protect the resource like, no new tube wells will be dug and water from the well will be first used for drinking purposes and then can be used for irrigation.
26 Yamuna project, New Delhi It’s a Rs.15-billion project to decrease the levels of pollution in the Yamuna river by trapping pollutants at major sewage drains.With the aim that only clean water from the entire city flows into the river
27 Problems ?But in July 2009 the government said the water quality of the Yamuna river has not shown “desired improvement”This was due to a large gap between the demand and availability of sewage treatment capacity and lack of fresh water in the river.”