Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Shock Monica Patel 1076.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Shock Monica Patel 1076."— Presentation transcript:

1 Shock Monica Patel 1076

2 Outline Definition Types of Shocks Risk Factors Signs and Symptoms
Diagnosis Treatment and Management Case Study References

3 Pathophysiology of Shock
Systemic hypoperfusion (decreased blood flow) due to reduction in either cardiac output or the effective circulating blood volume Impaired tissue perfusion occurs when an imbalance develops between cellular oxygen supply and cellular oxygen demand Often accompanies severe injury or illness Can lead to other conditions such as lack of oxygen in the body’s tissues (hypoxia), heart attack (cardiac arrest), or organ damage.

4 Clinical Features of Shock
Hypotension (Hypovolemic and Cardiogenic) With a weak, rapid pulse Oliguria (decreased kidney perfusion) Altered mental status (decreased brain perfusion) Tachypnea Tachycardia Cool, clammy, cyanotic skin Vasoconstrictive mechanisms to redirect blood from periphery to vital organs

5 Stages of Shock Nonprogressive phase: compensated stage, normal mechanisms will cause recovery. (baroreceptor reflexes, angiotensin secretion by the kidneys, vasopressin-constriction of peripheral arteries and veins). Progressive phase: the phase characterized by tissue hypoperfusion and worsening circulatory and metabolic abnormalities including lactic acidosis leading to metabolic acidosis. Irreversible phase: the phase during which damage is so severe that, even if perfusion is restored, survival is not possible.

6 Types of Shocks Cardiogenic shock Hypovolemic Shock Distributive shock
Blood pump problem Hypovolemic Shock Blood volume problem Distributive shock Septic Shock Blood vessel problem

7 Other Type of Shock: Neurogenic Shock Anaphylactic Shock
Distributive type of shock resulting in hypotension with bradycardia Anaphylactic Shock Serious allergic reaction

8 Cardiogenic Shock Low cardiac output due to outflow obstruction or myocardial pump failure Inability of the heart to maintain adequate tissue perfusion secondary to impaired pump function or failure Most commonly the result of a heart attack Other causes: valve disease, arrhythmias, tamponade, cardiomyopathies

9 Risk Factors Previous history of myocardial infarction
Plaque buildup in the coronary arteries Long-term valvular disease

10 Clinical Presentation
Cool skin Tachypnea Hypotension Fatigue Altered mental status Narrowed pulse pressure Rales, murmur

11 Diagnosis Physical examination (pulse and blood pressure)
Confirm the following tests: Blood pressure measurement Blood tests Electrocardiogram Echocardiography: heart activity and blood flow Swan-Ganz Catheter: pulmonary catheter to observe pumping activity of the heart

12 Treatment and Management
Correct hypotension: Fluid resuscitation to correct hypovolemia Vasoactive agents: Dopamine-will increase heart rate and cardiac work Dobutamine-may drop blood pressure Norepinephrine Epinephrine

13 Treatment Continued: Oxygenation Optimizing pump function:
Morphine as needed (decreases preload, anxiety) If Myocardial infarction: Heparin and revascularization If arrhythmia-correct arrhythmia If extracardiac abnormality: Reverse or treat cause

14 Hypovolemic Shock Most common type of shock
Life threatening condition that results when you lose more than 20% of your body’s blood or fluid supply. The severe fluid loss makes it impossible for the heart to pump sufficient blood to your body. Resulting in decreased cardiac output Causes: Vomiting, diarrhea, bowel obstruction, burns GI bleeding, trauma, Can cause organ failure This condition requires immediate emergency medical attention for survival

15 Risk Factors Losing about 1/5 or more of the normal amount of blood in your body causes hypovolemic shock. Excessive blood loss due to: Bleeding from cuts Bleeding from other injuries Internal bleeding, such as in the GI tract

16 Clinical Presentation
Tachycardia and tachypnea Weak, thready pulses Hypotension Cool and clammy skin Mental status changes Decreased urine output (dark and concentrated)

17 Diagnosis In addition to physical symptoms the following testing methods can be done to confirm: Blood testing to check for electrolyte imbalances and kidney function CT scan or an ultrasound to visualize body organs Echocardiogram to measure heart rhythm Endoscopy to examine esophagus and other GI organs Right heart catherization to check how blood is circulating Urinary catherization to measure the amount of urine in the bladder

18 Treatment and Management
Pre-hospital care: External bleeding should be controlled by direct pressure Immobilization patient (if trauma is involved) Securing adequate airway Ensuring ventilation Maximizing circulation Medications to increase the heart’s pumping abilities (dobutamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine) **delay in any of the above can be harmful to the patient and can lead to death

19 Septic Shock Systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS) secondary to a documented infection. Response is a state of acute circulatory failure involving persistent arterial hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation or by tissue hypoperfusion unexplained by other causes.

20 Risk Factors Risk factors: certain groups of people are more at risk. Why? They have weaker immune systems. Newborn babie, elderly people, pregnant women, people with long-term health conditions (diabetes, cirrhosis, or kidney failure), people with lowered immune systems (people with HIV or AIDS or receiving chemotherapy) Traumatic wounds Use of invasive catheters Drug therapy

21 Signs and Symptoms Hyperthermia (Early state) Hypothermia (late stage)
Tachycardia Wide pule pressure Decreased blood pressure

22 Diagnosis Important points for diagnosis:
Identify subtle presentations Screen patient for evidence of tissue hypoperfusion, such as cool or clammy skin, and elevated shock index (heart rate to systolic blood pressure > 0.9) A lactic acid level higher than 4 mm/dL has been used as an entry criterion for early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) and an indicator of severe tissue hypoperfusion

23 Treatment Hospitalization is required
Adequate antibiotic therapy is required (as early as possible) Resuscitate the patient using supportive measures to correct hypoxia, hypotension, and impaired tissue oxygenation (hypoperfusion) Identify the source of infection, and treat with antimicrobial therapy, surgery, or both. Antibiotics

24 Treatment Continued Antibiotics- Survival correlates with how quickly the correct drug was given Cover gram positive and gram negative bacteria Zosyn grams IV and ceftriaxone 1 gram IV or Imipenem 1 gram IV Add additional coverage as indicated Pseudomonas- Gentamicin or Cefepime MRSA- Vancomycin Intra-abdominal or head/neck anaerobic infections- Clindamycin or Metronidazole Asplenic- Ceftriaxone for N. meningitidis, H. infuenzae Neutropenic – Cefepime or Imipenem

25 Case Study Mrs. S is a 65 year old obese female who presents to ED complaining “crushing” substernal chest pain, tachycardia, cool, clammy extremities. History of myocardial infarction is present. Husband also states she has become slightly confused. Vitals: HR 46, BP 68/32, RR 23, SpO2 95% on RA, Afebrile. Labs: WBC 8.1, Hgb 12.1, BUN 12, Creat 1.0, Troponin 3.1, BG 121. EKG shows ST elevation in II, III, aVF

26 What kind of shock does the patient have?????
A. Cardiogenic B. Hypovolemic C. Septic

27 Cardiogenic Shock!!!!

28 References Robbins, Stanley L., Vinay Kumar, and Ramzi S. Cotran. “Shock.” Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier, Print. Medscape Reference (Online accessed 20 June 2014) URL: Medscape LLC (Online access on 20 June 2014) URL:

Download ppt "Shock Monica Patel 1076."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google