2 What do you think of when you hear the word “ABSOLUTE” Quick Question…What do you think of when you hear the word “ABSOLUTE”What are some synonyms for this word?
3 Evolution of Absolutism Quick Introduction…What is an ABSOLUTE MONARCH?A king or queen who has total power, and seeks to control all aspects of societyWhat gives the king their power?Divine Right – belief that God gave the king his “right” to be king (God’s Representative)FeudalismRenaissanceGrowth of CitiesGrowth of NationalismNeed for Central PowerEvolution of Absolutism
4 Absolutism in France: The Reign of Louis 14th Chapter 18Section 2Pages
5 What you will learnHenry IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV strengthened the French monarchy, with Louis XIV setting the example of an absolute monarch for the rest of Europe
6 Setting the Stage for Louis 14 King Henry IV There were BIG problems in France with religious connotations.The Catholics and the Huguenots (French Protestants) were constantly fighting.Huguenots were a threat to Catholics1/10 French were HuguenotsUn roe, une loi, une foi“ One King, One law, One Religion”Monarchy saw Huguenots as a challenge to this
7 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Huguenots and Catholics had been fight for years1572 Paris Streets run redHenry of Navarre’s (protestant) and Marguerite de Valoi’s (Catholic) Wedding dayBrides mother (Queen) ordered all of the protestants in for wedding to be killed10K-70K protestants killed, Henry would escapeHenry would be next inline for throneConverted to Catholicism and crowned King Henry IV
8 III. Setting the Stage for Louis 14 There was a time of peace when Henry of Navarre (a Huguenot prince) came to powerHe converted to Catholicism in order to help the countrySigned the Edict of Nantesmeant religious toleration for the Huguenots in France.Gave them limited freedomsOne King, one law, one religion is no longerCatholicism still official religion of France
9 King Henry IV Focused on repairing war torn France Fixed financial situationEliminated debt and built a surplusCreated new industryBuilt roads and canalsHe was assassinated by a fanatic who did not like
10 What’s Happening? How did Henry IV end France’s wars of religion? By converting to Catholicism and granting certain rights to the HuguenotsWhy did the Catholics accept the Edicts of Nantes?Because it ended the religious wars but still declared Catholicism as France’s official religionWhy would the French royal family want to kill all the Huguenots?Killing them would put an end to the fighting
11 Setting the Stage for Louis 14: Louis 13 B. Louis 13thWEAK king- young, mom ruled for several yearsRichelieu was his main “advisor”He pretty much ran the kingdom, not LouisHe hated the HuguenotsStrengthened his own power by weakening the nobles influence (made them take down their fortified castles)La Rochelle, Huguenots side with English, Upon their defeated all churches had to become catholicRepressed Huguenot Nobles with spies and harsh punishmentMore interested in Strengthening the Monarchy than supporting Catholics
12 What’s Happening?How did Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu strengthen the French monarchy?Reduced power of Huguenots;How did Richelieu plan to strengthen the monarchy?By crushing his opponents
13 Louis 14 The Most Powerful Ruler of France “I am the state” – meaning that he was FranceSun KingBegan his rule when he was 4 years oldBecause he was so young when he took over, he had an advisor – Mazarin.Mazarin’s “rule” caused the nobles to revolt. Louis hated this and made up his mind that he would become so powerful that the nobles would NEVER rise against him.Louis excluded them from councils and taxed them
14 Absolutism at Versailles Demanded to be in charge of all military, political, and economic initiatives.Best Example of an Absolute MonarchReligion of his subject were also under his direct controlBuilt a enormous palace, VersaillesGreatest ambition was to build up military and expand French Territory
15 Louis’ Palace: The Palace at Versailles The Palace at Versailles was 14 miles outside of Paris.5,000 acres of forests, gardens, and lawns1,400 Fountains, so many that they could not even run them all at the same time. (The workers would just turn them on when Louis walked by, and turn them off when he walked away.)The cost to build them palace was approximately $2.5 billion.It took 36,000 people to build the Palace at Versailles.People who wanted to speak to the king could not knock on his door. Instead, using the left pinkie finger, they had to gently scratch on the door, until they were granted permission to enter. As a result, many courtiers grew that fingernail longer than the othersWhy do you think that Louis built this palace?
18 The Actions of Louis 14 Expanded the economy Jean Baptist Colbert – Minister of Finance used Mercantilism to build France’s bank accountsFocused on making money in the New World (fur trade)Limited imports and increased exportsOver-turned the Edict of NantesPersecuted the Huguenots, so they 200 K left,and took jobs and money with them.Pampered himselfLived in TOTAL luxury, had 500 servants, cooks, etc. who looked after his every desire.
19 Louis 14 Extends France’s Borders Under Louis’ leadership, France became the most powerful nation in Europe.Largest PopulationFrench Army: Best trained, best weapons, most soldiers
20 Louis 14 Extends France’s Borders With this large army, Louis began to expand the French borders.Early in his campaigns he had successEventually his luck ran outHurt the people, b/c the high cost war was paid with taxes- went to war 4 timesWould melt down royal silver to pay for supplies
21 One Last War for the French The French people wanted peace.What they got was another warThe War of Spanish SuccessionFrance and Spain were on the verge of unificationWanted Spanish throne for his sonOther countries of Europe were scared that this would be too much power for the Bourbon Kings.Result: Spain and France were beaten by England, Netherlands and Holy Roman Empire, and the thrones were not permitted to be unified.Treaty of Utrecht
23 Positives that Louis Brought Louis 14: Legacy & DeathPositives that Louis BroughtStrengthened France in Art & LiteratureStrengthened French Military and influence in EuropeStrengthened the French Colonies in the New WorldNegatives that Louis BroughtConstant WarfareLost of debts (palace and fighting)High Taxes for the peopleSet the stage for the French RevolutionLouis died in his bed in The French people celebrated when they heard the news.
24 What’s Happening?What were the causes and effects of the Spanish Succession?Caused when other European powers did not want to see Louis XIV’s son become king of SpainResulted in giving Louis’s grandson the throne, but keeping France and Spain from being ruled by the same monarch
25 Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by describing how the power of the French monarchy increased under Henry IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV.
27 Bell ringer 18.3Write a brief description of either the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre or the palace that Louis XIV built at Versailles. Use details that will help your reader visualize the scene.5 Points7 Sentence Min
28 What you will learn today In contrast to the absolute monarchy France, the English monarchy was limited by Parliament; following a civil war, Parliament became even more powerful
29 Monarchs Defy Parliament First, you need to understand that a MONARCHY is a form of ABSOLUTISM.The Monarchs (Kings and Queens) felt that they were above the law (i.e. – Parliament)Parliament – English version of Congress
30 Monarchs vs. Parliament Queen Elizabeth – she had problems with the parliament regarding moneyJames I – he had problems with the parliament regarding religionCharles I – fired the Parliament – just got rid of it!
31 RecapHenry VII creates Protestant church to divorce wife- not able to have male childDaughter, Mary take thrown, switch back to Catholicism and kills protestantsDaughter, Elizabeth takes thrown, switches back to Catholic ChurchAll of this is done with the help of parliament passing laws.
32 ElizabethParliament wants her to marry so there will be a male heir to the thrown, but she refuses to do soShe doesn’t want to share the power with anybodyShe does have a good relationship with Parliament as they are able to speak their mind w/o fear of punishment.
33 What’s Happening How did the Tudors work with Parliament? Henry VIII teamed with Parliament to pass a series of laws to convert England to Protestantism and name him head of the Church of England, Elizabeth I needed the help of Parliament to re-establish herself as the head of the Church of EnglandWhat do you think would have happened if Elizabeth I had married?Might have lost power because her husband would have wanted to play a part in a growing England
34 James I Problems with Parliament Elizabeth's SuccessorRelative from ScotlandBelieved in the Devine Rights of KingsBad relations with ParliamentAbsolute PowerFrom ScotlandLow funds from predecessorsJames rarely got what he wanted from ParliamentWho really has the power?
35 James I Problems with Religion Parliament is increasing powerPuritans are on the riseReligious group who wants to purify the churchThought church was too catholicRobes/kneelingPuritans wanted to take power away from church officialsChurch leadership supported James IJames refuses to pass most reformdoes have Bible written in English. King James version
36 Charles I James dies and son Charles I is crowned. War = $$ Married a catholic woman and went to war (English are Happy). He is very popular.War = $$In order to continue conquests he must ask parliament to raise taxes.The only way that Parliament would give him money is if he signed the Petition of Right.No false imprisonmentNo taxes w/o Parliament’s consentNo housing of soldiers in homesNo martial (absolute) law in peace time
37 Charles I vs. Parliament The Petition of Right was a direct challenge to Absolute MonarchyCharles signed it – then he IGNORED it.He needs more $ and goes back to Parliament but is denied.Charles fired Parliament for 11 yearsThen he needed them back to get him some money – for more warsHe “re-hired” them.But after 11 years, who is in the power seat?
38 Charles I vs. Parliament Parliament took this opportunity to further limit kings power and further empower ParliamentCharles is not done yet!A radical Puritan group within parliament has moved to abolish the appointment of Bishops within Catholic ChurchThe kings power is directly connected to church officialsCharles again fires Parliament
39 What’s Happening?What led the first two Stuart kings to clash with Parliament?Went to Parliament to raise money, rarely able to get what he wantedWhat did Charles I do when Parliament refused to give him money after he signed the Petition of Rights?He taxed the English people and dismissed Parliament
40 Also called “Royalists” English Civil WarWhy? – because the people were mad at Charles for firing the Parliament (and Parliament was mad too)When? – 1642 – 1649LoyalistsSupported CharlesCalled “Cavilers”Also called “Royalists”PuritansSupported ParliamentCalled RoundheadsLeader was Oliver CromwellVS
41 Results of the English Civil War Oliver Cromwell’s Roundheads defeated the Cavilers and imprisoned CharlesThey put Charles I on trial, sentenced him to death – chopped his head off.
42 Changes in Power Formed a military state Very strict Oliver Cromwell took over following the civil warDismissed ParliamentFormed a CommonwealthRepublican based governmentFormed a military stateLord Protector of EnglandFought with Dutch of tradeVery strictClosed theatresLimited popular entertainmentTHE PEOPLE ARE UNHAPPY
43 What's Happening?What were the causes and results of the English Civil War?CAUSE: Parliament limited Charles I power and refused to give him moneyRESULT: Charles I executed, Monarchy and house of Lords abolished, England becomes a common wealth
44 Defender of Absolutism Thomas Hobbs- LeviathanDescribes human as being naturally selfish and fearfulLife in nature is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and shortPeople need an all powerful monarch to tell them how to live.
45 The Restoration (Charles II) After Cromwell died, the people wanted to have a king – Charles II (Charles I son) took over. (weak)He got along better with the Parliament, restoration took place in England.Was weak to ParliamentWas quick to given inSupported public constructionReopened theatres
46 What’s Happening? Why did Parliament vote to bring back the monarchy? Do you think that England was better off under the commonwealth or under the monarchy?Why did Parliament vote to bring back the monarchy?People were unhappy with new Puritan laws, and Cromwell’s son was an uninspiring leader
47 Glorious Revolution 1685 Charles II died with NO heir His brother James II took over (but he was catholic!)Believed in Absolute MonoarchyHe soon offended Parliament and voted some Catholic friends into high office (against the law)Parliament protested, so he fired themHis wife then had a son and the people were scared that a long line of Catholics would rule.
48 Glorious RevolutionHOWEVER, James had an older Protestant daughter (Mary) who married William of Orange.Parliament invited William to overthrow James II. He brought and army, James II was scared and fled the countryThus, the Glorious Revolution began and ended with no fightingWilliam and Mary begin their reign and develop aCONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY :There is a monarch in place,however they are limited intheir power
49 What’s Happening?Why are the events of 1688 known as the glorious revolution?A new king and king took power without blood shed
50 Pop Quiz True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. ____ 1.Queen Elizabeth I had a good relationship with Parliament and called it into session ten times during her 45-year reign.____ 2.Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector of England clamped down on social life by closing theaters and limiting other forms of popular entertainment.____ 3.William and Mary were crowned king and queen of England in order to prevent a Puritan monarch from occupying the throne.
51 Pop Quiz Answers True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false.1.Queen Elizabeth I had a good relationship with Parliament and called it into session ten times during her 45-year reign.TRUE2.Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector of England clamped down on social life by closing theaters and limiting other forms of popular entertainment.3.William and Mary were crowned king and queen of England in order to prevent a Puritan monarch from occupying the throne.FALSE
52 Using your notes, fill in the graphic organizer by identifying the causes of the decreasing power of the monarchy. 5 Points
53 Rulers of Russia and Central Europe Chapter 18Section 4P
54 Russia Before Ivan Far behind Western Development Run by church officialsBoyars (landowners)1546 young prince named IvanTook title of CzarIntended to rule w/o limits
55 Crash CourseRussia, the Kievan Rus, and the Mongols: Crash Course World History #20 - YouTube
56 Russia’s Absolute Ruler: Ivan IV Ivan IV a.k.a “Ivan the Terrible”Came to the throne when he was only 3 years old.At the age of 16 he crowned himself czar (Caesar) and took controlWhy would he want to be recognized as “czar?”
57 Two Stages of Ivan’s Life “Good Stage” –Married AnastasiaExpanded Russia’s landsExpanded to the East Volga River TerritoryIncreased tradeCleaned-up the Russian legal systemGeneral council included low class and merchantsPromoted military by merit not social statusTwo Stages of Ivan’s LifeWIFE (ANASTASIA) DIED / He thought she was poisoned.
58 Two Stages of Ivan’s Life “Bad Stage” –Ivan put together a “secret police” who went around hunting those suspected of being traitors (killed 1000s)Punished anyone who spokeout against czarKilled an entire city (Novgorod)Wanted to separate form RussiaKilled his own son (oldest)
59 Details about killing his son In 1581, Ivan beat his pregnant daughter-in-law for wearing immodest clothing, causing a miscarriage. His son, also named Ivan, upon learning of this, engaged in a heated argument with his father, which resulted in Ivan striking his son in the head with his pointed staff, causing his son's (accidental) death. This event is depicted in the famous painting by Ilya Repin, Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan on Friday, November 16, 1581 better known as Ivan the Terrible killing his son
60 Russia’s StrugglesAfter Ivan killed his oldest son there was only his weak, youngest son to rule.He was too weak to lead effectively.He died without an heir.The Time of Trouble beganEconomic, problems, Foreign invasion, uncertaintyThis began the rule of the Romanov Dynasty in Russia (lasts 300 years)Enter Czar Peter the Great
61 Czar Peter I Known as Peter the Great 6’8” tall Took over in 1696 Removed his sister from power1st act was to attack Azov (city held by Turks)Failure, but learned from mistakesAlong side carpenters, he built a navy and Azov Surrendered
62 Czar Peter IStrengthened the power of the czar (that is added to his ABSOLUTE POWER)When Peter took over Russia was very backwards, in that they still based their society on Vassals, serfs, etc., Peter was determined to change this.
63 Peter’s Reforms In 1697, Peter made a grand tour of Western Europe. Peter wanted to learn about their customs and manufacturing techniques.In order to make “Westernize” Russia, Peter had to strengthen is ABSOLUTE POWER. Here’s what he did:Controlled the Russian ChurchReduced the power of the Upper Class, and created a Middle ClassDisbanded the Streltsy (politically based Army)Enlarged the Russian Army (raised taxes to pay them)
64 Peter’s Westernization of Russia The Westernization ProcessIntroduced Potatoes as a part of their dietStarted a newspaperAllowed women to attend social gatheringsHad the Nobles start wearing Western FashionsEducation Focus:Sponsored Schools: Navigation, Arts, and SciencesSt. Petersburg: Russia’s warm water port (named after Peter’s Patron Saint)Results of Peter’s Actions: Russia became modernized, and better off as a result of his efforts.
65 Catherine the Great Grew angry with husband Czar Peter III Seized power after the Czar was murdered
66 Catherine the Great Reforms Worked on Westernization efforts of Peter the GreatBelieved that a wise stronger ruler could improve the lives of their subjectsReformed legal and education systemsRemoved trade restrictionsPromoted Science and artsDefeated and took over Poland, valuable outlet for sea trade
68 Catherine the GreatWhile fighting a man saying he was Peter III (not murdered) stepped forward saying the throne was hisHe put together a ragtag army of peasants and rebelledThis was put downCatherine decided she needed to strengthen the Monarchy in rural areasShe reorganized local government in the hands of nobles and landownersIn return for their services, she lowered their taxes and gave them absolute control over their lands and peasants
69 Monarchy and conflict in Central Europe Unlike Monarchs of WesternEurope and Russia,Central Europe had noAbsolute MonarchsThe Holy Roman EmpireHas an emperor, but theEmpire has severalsmaller states each with itsOwn ruler
70 The HapsburgsIn 1450 all of the small states had a ruler that came from the same family- The HapsburgsOne rule would try to exert his authority on all the States
71 IV. The 30 Years War When: 1618 – 1648 Where: Bohemia (Czech Republic) Who: Protestants (with Lutheran help) and CatholicsDetails: Conflict over religion, territory, and for power among European ruling familiesResults:Hurt Germany most (lost 4 million people)Treaty: Peace of WestphaliaThis was the last religious war in EuropeEurope became a group independent countries, rather than a Catholic Empire
72 The 7 Years War When: 1756 - 1763 Where: Europe, India, North America Who: England vs. France (and their allies)Results: England gained the mostThey took all of France’s holding in the New WorldEngland gained trading domination in India
73 The Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment New Models and MethodsChapter 19 Sec 1-2Pages
74 Bellringer 19.1Imagine that you are a German engineer who has moved to Russia to help Peter the Great build St. Petersburg. Write a letter in which you try to persuade another professional back home to come work with you in Russia.5 points
75 By the 17th Century, many changes had begun to occur: Scientists all over Europe kept in touchScience became a big businessNewton’s theory of the UniverseHuge influence on both scientific & political/social thinkingApplication of Science to IndustryPopularized Science
76 Themes of the Scientific Revolution Science = a philosophyScience is practicalScience creates repercussions in theology & philosophyDeism: “Clockwork Universe”Traditional churches of all kinds were threatened by new ideas about man and God.
77 More ThemesScience created repercussions in political thought, as well.Scientific Revolution led to a belief in democracy & freedomRational order in the universe – it was possible scientifically, politically, and sociallyAll of worlds problems could be solved with reason
78 What you will LearnNew ways of thinking led to remarkable discoveries during the Scientific Revolution.
79 Old ViewsScholars relied on church and traditional authorities for their beliefs on the structure of the earthThese old ideas were upheld by the churchGeocentric TheoryTaught god put earth at the center of the universeScholars would begin to challenge these traditional way and begin a new way of thinkingQuestioning the natural world
81 The Universe Ptolemy’s model of the universe was generally accepted by ancient & medieval scientists (geo-centric with concentric crystalline spheres)Aristotle was 1st toProduce this theoryThe Universe
82 Why new way of thinking Exploration- lead to study of natural world Ancient scholars could give no info about these new landsNew people and animals never seen beforeMaybe there are other things out there that have yet to be discoveredThe more the examined natural world, the more they realized ancient beliefs did not match
83 New Views Challenged old views Based on Europeans learning advances made by Arab worldPosed theories about natural world and then tested themCalled Scientific Method
84 Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method is a set of techniques for acquiring new knowledge about the natural world based on observable, measurable evidence.Step 1 Identify a problem or a research question to be answered.Step 2 Form a hypothesis that can be tested. A hypothesis is a proposed answer to the research question and is based on previous knowledge.Step 3 Perform experiments to test the hypothesis.Step 4 Record the results of the experiments.Step 5 Analyze the results of the experiments to form a conclusion that either proves or disproves the hypothesis.
85 What’s Happening? What changes led to the dawn of modern science? Traditional authorities challenged: new theories proposed and tested; exploration led to closer study of natural world; development of scientific methodsHow was the scientific method different than pervious methods of thinkingReliance on testing ideas by experimentation; rather than accepting the views of traditional authorities
86 Two scholars who help develop the Scientific method
88 Rene Descartes: Rationalist Tried to use reason to explain the world—didn’t trust the senses.Doubted everything until it could be proved by reason1637: Discourse on Method: emphasis on deduction & mathRelied heavily on math and logic to prove truths
89 Sir Francis Bacon Only way to gain scientific knowledge is by experimentation Observing measuring, explaining, verifying
90 Induction vs. Deduction Medieval scientists believed in the ideasof Aristotle: Deductive Method: look at the “whole” and make hypotheses about itBacon rejected the deductive method &advocated the Inductive method: look at the parts and make hypotheses about the whole.
91 Copernicus- Astronomer Heliocentric universe in which stars and planets are points of light with circular orbits.1st scientist to complete a model of the solar system using science, physics, and mathematicsPublished “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs” in 1473did so on his death bed as he fear church opposition
93 Tycho Brahe- Astronomer/Mathematician Observed the heavens and decided that all of the heavenly bodies orbited around the sun, except for the earth and its moon, and that the sun and its planetary system revolved around the earth.
98 GalileoImproved the telescope and used it to observe the moon, stars, and other heavenly bodies1610: Published “Starry Messenger” in which he claimed there were mountains on the moon and moons around Jupiter.1613: Sunspots discovered
99 Controversy with the Church Between 1613 and 1616, Galileo wrote a series of letters concerning the truth of the Copernican model.The 1616 letter came to the attention of an influential Cardinal who had it put on the Index of Prohibited Books.He was ordered NOT to hold Copernican views.
100 More Controversy: Galileo wrote “Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World: Ptolemaic & Copernican”Banned immediatelyPut on Trial in 1633 and found guilty of breaking the 1616 sentence.Put under house arrest where he was supervised by officers of the Inquisition.
101 What’s Happening?What discoveries occurred in astronomy, physics, and math during the Scientific Revolution?Heliocentric theory; plants orbited the sun; predictable laws of movement; calculusWhy were Galileo’s books so contraversial?They contradicted the official Church viewpoints that the sun orbited the earth
103 Sir Isaac Newton 1668: built the first reflecting telescope Laws of motionLaw of universal gravitation1687: Published “Principial Mathematican”1704: Published “Optics” in which he included his explanation of differential calculus as an appendix.Developed calculus independent of Leibniz
104 Scientists Antony van Leeuwenhoek was 1st to invent microsope Robert Boyle, the father of modern Chemistry, was 1st to define an element and described matter as a cluster of tiny particles
105 What Happening?How did scientific ideas move beyond the realm of science and affect society?Science and religion combined to produce artistic achievement of the Renaissance; Scientist challenged some of the traditional ideas of the church
106 Using your notes, fill in the graphic organizer by listing the causes and the effects of new discoveries made during the Scientific Revolution 5 Points
107 The Enlightenment Chapter 19 Sec 2 Pages 574-579
108 Bell Ringer 9.2Suppose that you are an astronomer during the mid-1500s. Write a short speech explaining why the scientific method would reveal truth more accurately than reliance upon traditional authorities.
109 What you will learnEuropean thinkers developed new ideas about government and society during the Enlightenment.
110 The Age of ReasonScientific Revolution convinced many people in the power of reasonCould it be used to study human nature tooReason can be used to solve human problems
111 Philosophies'Philosophies had differing beliefs about issues, such as the perfect form of government, etc., but they all shared a basic unity of thought.
112 Similarities All applied reason to their analysis of society All believed in progress and looked optimistically toward the futureAll sought reform to establish and protect human libertiesAll attacked the abuses of the Old Regime
113 Thomas Hobbs- political thinker Wrote LeviathanBased upon his horrific experiences in English Civil WarPeople are self fish and greedyPeople need governmentSocial contractPeople should give up some freedoms in exchange for peace, saftey, and order that government will provideMonarchy was best form of governmentStrong central power could be used to impose law and order
114 Locke: Empiricist People are naturally happy, tolerant and reasonable Everyone is born free with natural rights of life, liberty and property.
115 Locke: Empiricist Purpose of the government was to protect the people Monarchs were not chosen by GodInstead the people consented to the government, who power was limited by law“Two Treatises of Civil Government” 1690If government failed to protect it citizens’ natural rights, they people had the right to over throwRevolution
116 Important Ideas of Locke “Tabula Rosa” All knowledge comes from sense impressions made on the mind from birth.At birth the mind is like a “blank slate”Our picture of the world is built up of the impressions which are imprinted on our mind through numerous observations during our lifetime.
117 More Important IdeasMan is a “rational” being that can be improved by education and proper upbringing.Provided a “scientific” reason for reformToleration, respect for reason, optimism about human perfectibility, and political freedom were all hallmarks of the Enlightenment that stemmed from Locke.
118 Rousseau “Force does not constitute right Rousseau “Force does not constitute right... obedience is due only to legitimate powers”
119 Rousseau (1712 – 1778)A romantic, he differed from the rest by questioning the generally accepted faith in reason and science as a means to a good lifePeople were born basically goodSociety corrupted manCivilization was a disease that had corrupted man and led him into slavery“Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains (Social Contract)
120 Social ContractAll men begin in a state of nature, where they are “benevolent natives.”Human nature is innately good—man is corrupted by society.The first person to fence off his property ruined this idyllic state of affairs and created a need for government—thus a social contract was made between citizens.A social contract was a deal made among the people themselves in which the supreme authority was to be the general will.
121 Government Direct democracy, an agent of the people Revolution is advisable, if the government no longer serves the needs of the people, and it can be changed whenever the people wish.
122 Montesquieu “The love of democracy is that of equality”
123 Montesquieu (1689 – 1755) Most famous book: The Spirit of the Laws Relativist: no one best form of government exists.Good government should vary with the circumstances of the nation—education, climate, soil, size, religion, customs, etc.
124 Necessary FactorsNo matter which type of government was chosen, two characteristics needed to be present for there to be “good government”Checks and BalancesSeparation of Powers
125 Voltaire “Liberty of Thought is the Life of the Soul”
126 Voltaire (1694-1778) Longest-lived, most prolific philosopher Believed the universe is governed by natural laws which can’t be changed by man.Rejected the idea of innate ideas and held that knowledge is acquired through experience which is interpreted by reason.Man and human nature are basically good
127 Diderot (1713 – 1784)Editor-in-chief of the Encyclopedie (vol. 1 published in 1751)27 years to writePropagandistic—designed to show up the faults of society and to promote rationalism, science, a respect for natural law, and the need for reform to create social progressHelped spread Enlightenment ideasCensored by the Catholic church
128 Economic ReformersPhysiocrats: a group of economic thinkers who believed in the existence of natural economic laws.Economic harmony would result when these natural laws were left alone to operate freelyCalled for a laissez-faire economy
129 Mary Wollstonecraft Demanded equal rights for women Especially in educationA Vindication of the Rights of WomenIf men and women were equal in education then they would be equal in society
131 Adam Smith (1727 – 1790) Father of Modern Capitalism/Laissez-Faire Business activities hsoul take place in the free marketargued against the protection of home industries by imposing tariffsArgued that in the long run it would be to the nation’s advantage not to restrict imports by tariffs.Government interference justified only for the purpose of defense or to extend or protect the rights and liberties of citizensWanted funding of public education.
132 Most Famous QuoteEvery individual...generally, indeed, neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it. By preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign industry he intends only his own security; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention.
133 Enlightened Absolutism Ideas of enlightenment thinkers became popular with some absolute monarchsMonarchs tried to justify their despotic rule by claiming that they were governing in the interests of the people.Some enlightened despots really did care about the condition of the people are were willing to offer limited reforms as long as the reforms did not jeopardize their power.
134 Enlightened Monarchs Enlightened Monarchs included: Frederick II (the Great) of PrussiaCatherine II (the Great) of RussiaJoseph II of AustriaAll of these monarchs sought to provide educational opportunities, hospitals, and cultural opportunities to at least some portion of their population.
138 Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by describing how Enlightenment ideas affected government
139 1. How was the Enlightenment influenced by reason? 2. What new views did philosophers have about government?3. What new views did philosophers have about society?4. How did Enlightenment ideas spread?