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Types of Chemical Reactions

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1 Types of Chemical Reactions

2 Types of Chemical Reactions
Combination Reactions In a combination reaction (synthesis), two or more substances combine to form a single substance. The reactants are either two elements or two compounds. The product of a combination reaction is always a compound. What determines the type product you get? (the reactants)

3 Combination Reactions
When a metal and a non-metal react, the product is an ionic compound. You should be able to write the correct formula of the product by considering the charges of the anions and cations. Ex.

4 Combination Reactions
When two non-metals react, the product is a molecular compound, but more than one product is often possible. Ex.

5 Combination Reactions
More than one product can also be formed from the combination of a transition metal and a nonmetal. Ex.

6 Combination Reactions
Some nonmetal oxides react with water to produce an acid, a compound that produces hydrogen ions in aqueous solution. Ex.

7 Combination Reactions
Some metallic oxides react with water to give a base, or a compound containing hydroxide ions. In this case, you can use the ionic charges to derive the formula for the product. Ex.

8 Practice Problems Complete the following combination reactions.
Al(s) + O2(g)


10 Cu(s) + S(s)


12 SO3(g) + H2O(l)


14 Decomposition Reactions
In a decomposition reaction, a single compound is broken down into two or more products. These products can be any combination of elements or compounds. When a simple binary compound breaks down you know the products will be the constituent elements. Most decomposition reactions require energy in the form of heat, light, or electricity.

15 Decomposition Reactions
When calcium carbonate is heated, it decomposes or breaks down into two simpler compounds. This reaction is used to make lime (calcium oxide) from limestone (primarily calcium carbonate).

16 Decomposition Reactions
Many other compounds also decompose with the addition of energy. The decomposition of mercury(II) oxide to yield mercury and oxygen is shown below.

17 Decomposition Reactions
What is TNT? Trinitrotoluene The explosive properties of dynamite are due to the rapid production of large amounts of gases. Decomposition of TNT: For every 2 moles of TNT that decompose, 15 moles of hot expanding gases are produced.

18 Practice Problems Write a balanced equation for each decomposition reaction a. H2O(l) electricity


20 b. lead(IV) oxide heat


22 c. HI


24 Single-Replacement Reactions
In a single-replacement reaction, one element replaces a second element in a compound. Single-replacement reactions are also called single-displacement reactions. In the following example potassium replaces hydrogen, which is released as a flammable gas.

25 Single-Replacement Reactions
Dropping a small piece of potassium into a beaker of water creates a violent reaction. The reaction produces hydrogen gas and a large quantity of heat. Whether one metal will displace another metal from a compound can be determined by the relative reactivities of the two metals. The activity series of metals lists metals in order of decreasing reactivity. A reactive metal will replace any metal listed below it in the activity series.

26 Activity Series of Metals
Name Symbol Lithium Li Potassium K Calcium Ca Sodium Na Magnesium Mg Aluminum Al Zinc Zn Iron Fe Lead Pb (Hydrogen) (H)+ Copper Cu Mercury Hg Silver Ag

27 Single-Replacement Reactions
Ex. Magnesium displaces zinc from a zinc compound in solution, as well as silver from a silver compound in solution. By contrast, magnesium does not displace lithium or calcium from aqueous solutions of their compounds.

28 A nonmetal can also replace another nonmetal from a compound
A nonmetal can also replace another nonmetal from a compound. This replacement is limited to the halogens (F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2). The activity of the halogens decreases as you go down Group 7 of the Periodic Table.

29 Practice Problems Write a balanced chemical equation for each single-replacement reaction. Zn(s) + H2SO4(aq)


31 Na(s) + H2O(l)


33 Sn(s) + NaNO3(aq)


35 Cl2(g) + NaBr(aq)


37 Double-Replacement Reactions
Many ionic compounds dissolve in water to form homogeneous solutions. If solutions of two ionic compounds are mixed, either an aqueous homogeneous mixture will form or a chemical reaction will occur. Mixing aqueous solutions of barium chloride and potassium carbonate results in a chemical reaction.

38 Double-Replacement Reactions
Barium carbonate is the white precipitate formed. Potassium chloride, the other product of the reaction, remains in solution.

39 Double-Replacement Reactions
Double-replacement reactions involve an exchange of positive ions between two reacting compounds. Such reactions generally take place between two ionic compounds in aqueous solution and are often characterized by the production of a precipitate. For a double-replacement reaction to occur, one of the following is usually true.

40 Double-Replacement Reactions
1. One product is only slightly soluble and precipitates from solution. For example: the reaction of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide and cadmium nitrate produces a yellow precipitate of cadmium sulfide.

41 Double-Replacement Reactions
2. One product is a gas that bubbles out of the mixture. For example: hydrogen cyanide gas is produced when aqueous sodium cyanide is mixed with sulfuric acid.

42 Double-Replacement Reactions
3. One product is a molecular compound such as water. Combining solutions of calcium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid produces water as one of the products.

43 Practice Problems Write a balanced chemical equation for each double-replacement reaction BaCl2(aq) + K2CO3(aq)


45 FeS(s) + HCl(aq)


47 Combustion Reactions In a combustion reaction, an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy as heat and light. Combustion reactions commonly involve hydrocarbons, compounds of hydrogen and carbon. The complete combustion of a hydrocarbon produces the compounds carbon dioxide and water.

48 Combustion Reactions The combustion reaction for methane is shown below

49 Combustion Reactions The reaction between some elements and oxygen is also an example of a combustion reaction. For example, both magnesium and sulfur will burn by reaction with oxygen.

50 Practice Problems Write balanced equations for the complete combustion of the following compounds. benzene (C6H6)(l)

51 Methanol (CH3OH)(l)


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