3 Gauss-Seidel Method An iterative method. Basic Procedure: Algebraically solve each linear equation for xiAssume an initial guess solution arraySolve for each xi and repeatUse absolute relative approximate error after each iteration to check if error is within a pre-specified tolerance.
4 Gauss-Seidel Method Why? The Gauss-Seidel Method allows the user to control round-off error.Elimination methods such as Gaussian Elimination and LU Decomposition are prone to prone to round-off error.Also: If the physics of the problem are understood, a close initial guess can be made, decreasing the number of iterations needed.
5 Gauss-Seidel Method Algorithm If: the diagonal elements are non-zero A set of n equations and n unknowns:If: the diagonal elements are non-zeroRewrite each equation solving for the corresponding unknownex:First equation, solve for x1Second equation, solve for x2
6 Gauss-Seidel Method Algorithm Rewriting each equation From Equation 1 From equation n-1From equation n
7 Gauss-Seidel Method Algorithm General Form of each equation
8 Gauss-Seidel Method Algorithm How or where can this equation be used? General Form for any row ‘i’How or where can this equation be used?
9 Gauss-Seidel Method Solve for the unknowns Use rewritten equations to solve for each value of xi.Important: Remember to use the most recent value of xi. Which means to apply values calculated to the calculations remaining in the current iteration.Assume an initial guess for [X]
10 Calculate the Absolute Relative Approximate Error Gauss-Seidel MethodCalculate the Absolute Relative Approximate ErrorSo when has the answer been found?The iterations are stopped when the absolute relative approximate error is less than a prespecified tolerance for all unknowns.
11 Example: Surface Shape Detection To infer the surface shape of an object from images taken of a surface from three different directions, one needs to solve the following set of equationsThe right hand side values are the light intensities from the middle of the images, while the coefficient matrix is dependent on the light source directions with respect to the camera. The unknowns are the incident intensities that will determine the shape of the object.Find the values of x1, x2, and x3 use the Gauss-Seidel method.
12 Example: Surface Shape Detection The system of equations is:Initial Guess:Assume an initial guess of
13 Example: Surface Shape Detection Rewriting each equation
14 Example: Surface Shape Detection Iteration 1Substituting initial guesses into the equations
15 Example: Surface Shape Detection Finding the absolute relative approximate errorAt the end of the first iterationThe maximum absolute relative approximate error is %
17 Example: Surface Shape Detection Finding the absolute relative approximate error for the second iterationAt the end of the first iterationThe maximum absolute relative approximate error is %
18 Example: Surface Shape Detection Repeating more iterations, the following values are obtainedIterationx1x2x31234561058.6−2117.04234.8−8470.116942−3388899.055150.00149.991062.7−2112.94238.9−8466.016946−3388499.059150.30149.85150.07149.96150.01−783.81803.98−2371.93980.5−8725.716689101.28197.49133.90159.59145.62152.28Notice: The absolute relative approximate errors are not decreasing.
19 Gauss-Seidel Method: Pitfall What went wrong?Even though done correctly, the answer is not converging to the correct answerThis example illustrates a pitfall of the Gauss-Siedel method: not all systems of equations will converge.Is there a fix?One class of system of equations always converges: One with a diagonally dominant coefficient matrix.Diagonally dominant: [A] in [A] [X] = [C] is diagonally dominant if:for all ‘i’ andfor at least one ‘i’
20 Gauss-Seidel Method: Pitfall Diagonally Dominant: In other words….For every row: the element on the diagonal needs to be equal than or greater than the sum of the other elements of the coefficient matrixFor at least one row: The element on the diagonal needs to be greater than the sum of the elements.What can be done? If the coefficient matrix is not originally diagonally dominant, the rows can be rearranged to make it diagonally dominant.
21 Example: Surface Shape Detection Examination of the coefficient matrix reveals that it is not diagonally dominant and cannot be rearranged to become diagonally dominantThis particular problem is an example of a system of linear equations that cannot be solved using the Gauss-Seidel method.Other methods that would work:1. Gaussian elimination 2. LU Decomposition
22 Gauss-Seidel Method: Example 2 Given the system of equationsThe coefficient matrix is:With an initial guess ofWill the solution converge using the Gauss-Siedel method?
23 Gauss-Seidel Method: Example 2 Checking if the coefficient matrix is diagonally dominantThe inequalities are all true and at least one row is strictly greater than:Therefore: The solution should converge using the Gauss-Siedel Method
24 Gauss-Seidel Method: Example 2 Rewriting each equationWith an initial guess of
25 Gauss-Seidel Method: Example 2 The absolute relative approximate errorThe maximum absolute relative error after the first iteration is 100%
26 Gauss-Seidel Method: Example 2 After Iteration #1Substituting the x values into the equationsAfter Iteration #2
27 Gauss-Seidel Method: Example 2 Iteration 2 absolute relative approximate errorThe maximum absolute relative error after the first iteration is %This is much larger than the maximum absolute relative error obtained in iteration #1. Is this a problem?
28 Gauss-Seidel Method: Example 2 Repeating more iterations, the following values are obtainedIterationa1a2a3123456100.00240.6180.23621.5464.53914.90003.71533.16443.02813.00343.000131.88917.4084.49963.09233.81183.97083.99714.000167.66218.8764.0042The solution obtained is close to the exact solution of
29 Gauss-Seidel Method: Example 3 Given the system of equationsRewriting the equationsWith an initial guess of
30 Gauss-Seidel Method: Example 3 Conducting six iterations, the following values are obtainedIterationa1A2a312345621.000−196.15−1995.0−201492.0364×105−2.0579×10595.238110.71109.83109.90109.8914.421−116.021204.6−121401.2272×105100.0094.453112.43109.63109.9250.680−462.304718.1−476364.8144×105−4.8653×10698.027110.96109.80The values are not converging.Does this mean that the Gauss-Seidel method cannot be used?
31 Gauss-Seidel Method The Gauss-Seidel Method can still be used The coefficient matrix is not diagonally dominantBut this is the same set of equations used in example #2, which did converge.If a system of linear equations is not diagonally dominant, check to see if rearranging the equations can form a diagonally dominant matrix.
32 Gauss-Seidel MethodNot every system of equations can be rearranged to have a diagonally dominant coefficient matrix.Observe the set of equationsWhich equation(s) prevents this set of equation from having a diagonally dominant coefficient matrix?
33 Gauss-Seidel Method Summary Advantages of the Gauss-Seidel Method Algorithm for the Gauss-Seidel MethodPitfalls of the Gauss-Seidel Method
35 Additional ResourcesFor all resources on this topic such as digital audiovisual lectures, primers, textbook chapters, multiple-choice tests, worksheets in MATLAB, MATHEMATICA, MathCad and MAPLE, blogs, related physical problems, please visit