# 9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 121 Lecture #12 Circuit models for Diodes, Power supplies Reading: Malvino chapter 3, 4.1-4.4 Next: 4.10, 5.1, 5.8 Then.

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9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 121 Lecture #12 Circuit models for Diodes, Power supplies Reading: Malvino chapter 3, 4.1-4.4 Next: 4.10, 5.1, 5.8 Then transistors (chapter 6 and 14)

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 122 Circuit models Now that we have studied the physics underlying how a diode works, we are going to hide all of it in a circuit model Why? If we create a circuit model, then we can draw and analyze electronic circuits without getting lost in the details.

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 123 IV curve for an ideal diode The IV curve for a ideal diode is to have zero current in the reverse direction, and no resistance when forward biased Voltage → Current 

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 124 Real diode IV curve

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 125 Idealized devices We have encountered the idea of ideal devices before: A voltage source is like a battery, but produces a perfect voltage regardless of current: And the ideal current source, a current regardless of voltage ~

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 126 The ideal diode We now add another ideal device, the ideal diode. A real diode drawn as the same symbol sometimes in a circle to make it clear that it is not a ideal diode

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 127 The ideal diode as a switch The ideal diode behaves as a switch: If current is being pushed through in the forward direction the switch is closed. If a reverse bias voltage is applied, the circuit is closed. Reverse Bias: Forward Bias:

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 128 Ideal diode vs real diode IV curve

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 129 Ideal diode vs real diode IV curve We could improve our model for real diode by not closing the switch until the voltage gets about 0.7 volts into the forward bias. We can do this in a circuit by making a circuit model

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1210 The ideal diode To make a somewhat better model of a real diode: We use an ideal diode in series with an ideal voltage source ~ + 0.7 volts -

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1211 Ideal diode vs real diode IV curve We could improve our model further by sloping the IV curve for the region where forward current is flowing

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1212 Improved diode model To make an even better model of a real diode: We use an ideal diode in series with an ideal voltage source and a resistor. The resistance needed for the model is given by the inverse’ of the slope of the IV curve ~ + 0.7 volts - R

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1213 Key point: the model can change Which model you use for a device can change depending on –What the mode of operation of the device is –how accurately you need to model the device For example: A hand analysis of a power supply would probably use an ideal diode, and then break the problem into two time periods –When the diode is forward biased –When the diode is reverse biased

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1214 Higher accuracy models If a diode was to be used at high frequencies (hundreds of megahertz or higher) then the model would have to account for the movement of charge in and out of the depletion zone, a capacitive effect. It is important to use a model which is accurate enough to account for the necessary effects, without using so complicated a model that it is difficult to understand what is going on!

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1215 Applications Applications of diodes include Power supply rectifiers Demodulators Clippers Limiters Peak detectors Voltage references Voltage multipliers

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1216 Half-wave rectifier A single diode can be used to take an alternating current, and allow only the positive voltage swing to be applied to the load ~ R

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1217 An AC input is sinusoidal

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1218 The diode blocks the negative voltages

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1219 Full-wave rectifier If we add an additional diode, it does not pass current at the same time as the first diode, but the load is now disconnected during the negative half cycle. What if we could flip the connection and use the negative half wave? ~ R

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1220 Full-wave rectifier The result is called a full wave rectifier ~ R

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1221 Full-wave rectified voltage

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1222 Transformers In order to use a full wave rectifier, the source and the load must be able to float with respect to each other One way to isolate AC power is to use a transformer. A transformer is a couple of coils of wire which transfer power by a changing magnetic field. By having different numbers of windings, or turns of wire, a transformer can step up or step down an AC voltage.

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1223 Transformers

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1224 The voltage across the secondary of the transformer (the output windings) is: But this only works for changes in the voltage—and therefore for AC only

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1225 Filtering A transformer and a full wave rectifier will produce a voltage which is always positive, but varies with time In order to power electronic devices, we need to smooth out the variations with time. Another way to look at this is that we need to store energy temporarily while the input voltage changes sign.

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1226 Power supply filter capacitor If we add a capacitor in parallel with the load, it will charge up when power is available from the voltage source, and then it will slowly discharge through the load when the diodes are off. ~ R

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1227 Full wave rectified, with filtering

9/27/2004EE 42 fall 2004 lecture 1228 Ripple The result is a DC voltage, with some residual variations at twice the frequency of the AC power. The variation is called ripple.

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