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Published byPaula Kelley Modified over 7 years ago
The focus of Culinary Arts and Nutrition I: Food Groups 1.Grains 2.Vegetables 3.Fruits 4.Dairy 5.Protein Foods The focus of Culinary Arts and Nutrition II: The Nutrients 1.Carbohydrates 2.Fats 3.Protein 4.Vitamins 5.Minerals 6.Water Each nutrient serves a specific function in the body. A nutrient is a source of nourishment needed by any living form to sustain life.
Vocabulary: Nutrition vs. Nutrient Nutrition the study of how the body uses food. Nutrients a substance found in food that the body needs to regulate body functions such as breathing and metabolism, promote growth, build and repair body tissues, and obtain energy
Vocabulary: Calorie Calorie A unit of heat equal to the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1,000 grams of water by one degree Celsius. This unit is used as a measure of the energy released by food as it is digested by the human body. Also called kilocalorie, large calorie. *Three nutrients provide energy (calories), three do not.
Fats (lipids) Examples of foods containing fats : Saturated: Butter, Oils, Hydrogenated Oils Meat Milk and cheese Eggs Most processed foods Some seeds and nuts (Brazilnuts, Macadamia) Unsaturated: Some seeds and nuts (natural peanut butter, almonds) Fish Avocados Energy provided by fats: 1 gram = 9 calories Examples of how the body uses Fats: Provides energy Aids in vitamin absorption Helps insulation Issues associated with a fat deficiency (not enough): Heart problems Vitamin deficiencies Low energy level Hunger Emotional issues (depressions, stress) Issues associated with an excess (too much) of fats: Heart disease Obesity Certain types of cancer
Carbohydrates Examples of foods containing carbohydrates : Less healthy choices: Grains: white bread pasta made from white flour Donuts, pastries Fruits: cantaloupe raisin Vegetables: white potatoes corn Healthier choices: Grains: whole wheat bread whole grain pasta brown rice buckwheat bulgur (cracked wheat) millet wild rice popcorn quinoa Fruits apples berries grapefruit Vegetables kale spinach Energy provided by carbohydrates: 1 gram = 4 calories Examples of how the body uses Carbohydrates: Provides energy Helps with digestions and waste elimination Issues associated with a carbohydrate deficiency (not enough): dizziness, headaches, weakness, fatigue, nutrient deficiencies, nausea, diarrhea, mental fatigue, bad breath Issues associated with an excess (too much) of carbohydrates: Weight gain / Obesity Blood sugar issues GI distress
Proteins Examples of foods high in protein: Beef Tofu Soy beans Eggs Cheese Pork Nuts and Seeds Chicken Fish Energy provided by proteins: 1 gram = 4 calories Examples of how the body uses proteins: Builds, maintains, and replaces the tissues. Hormone regulation. Regulate cell division. Contribute to a healthy immune system. Issues associated with a protein deficiency (not enough): Fatigue Hair and skin issues Weight loss Decreased immunity Issues associated with an excess (too much) of proteins.: Digestive issues Cancer Heart disease Liver or kidney problems Weight gain
Vitamins Examples of foods containing certain vitamins: B6 – fortified cereals, organ meats B12 – fish, poultry C – kiwis, oranges, strawberries K – broccoli, brussels sprouts, spinach Folic Acid – dark green leafy vegetables Potassium – bananas, soybeans, sweet potatoes Energy provided by vitamins: 1 gram = 0 calories Examples of how the body uses vitamins: Supports energy metabolism Helps the body use other nutrients Helps maintain healthy skin, eyes, bones & blood Issues associated with a vitamin deficiency (not enough): Increased risk of heart disease, cancer, and poor bone health Issues associated with an excess (too much) of vitamins : Excess rarely happens from eating food. If it happens, it is usually from taking too many supplements Heart and liver problems Upset stomach Diarrhea Fat soluble: A D E K All other vitamins are water soluble
Minerals Examples of foods containing certain minerals : Calcium – milk, cheese, dark leafy vegetable, dried beans Iron – beef, whole grains, nuts, peas Magnesium – green leafy vegetables, whole grains, legumes, seeds Energy provided by minerals 1 gram = 0 calories Examples of how the body uses minerals: Helps the body work properly, often working with vitamins ; metabolism, regulate heartbeat, help red blood cells Most become part of your body structure - calcium = teeth and bones Issues associated with a mineral deficiency (not enough): Weak bones and teeth Fatigue Nausea Overall poor physical health Issues associated with an excess (too much) of minerals: Upset stomach Nausea Excess calcium deposits Headache
Water Examples of foods containing water : Watermelon Zucchini Spinach Grapefruit Cantaloupe Bananas Celery Pain low-fat yogurt Energy provided by water: 1 gram = 0 calories Examples of how the body uses water: Water keeps every part of your body functioning properly. Water regulates body temperature and eliminates waste products. Water forms the basic structure of all cells and organs. Water acts as a lubricant during digestion Issues associated with a water deficiency (not enough): Dehydration Trouble controlling body temperature Kidney issues Constipation Issues associated with an excess (too much) of water.: Water intoxication
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