3Terms Systole = contraction of ventricles Diastole = relaxation of ventriclesCardiac cycle= events of one complete heartbeat, during which both atria and ventricles contract and then relax
4AV valves closed during ventricular systole AV valves open during ventricular diastoleAV valves open when ventricular pressure is less than atrial pressure.AV valves close when the pressure inside the ventricle rises
5Semilunar valves closed during ventricular diatole Semilunar valves open during ventricular systoleSemilunar valves open when ventricular pressure exceeds that of the large arteries leaving the heart.Semilunar valves close when ventricles relax at the end of systole to prevent backflow
6Pressure in the heart is highest during ventricular systole. Pressure in the heart is lowest during ventricular diastole.
8Filling Heart Chambers: Cardiac Cycle LUB= AV valve closingDUB = semilunar valve closingAtrial contractionMid-to-late diastole (ventricular filling)Ventricular systole (atria in diastole)Early diastoleIsovolumetric contraction phaseVentricular ejection phaseIsovolumetric relaxationVentricular fillingLeft atriumRight atriumLeft ventricleRight ventricleLUB DUB is caused by the closing of the heart valves- the first sound is longer and louder and the second sound, which is short and sharpFigure 11.7
9Abnormal Sounds might indicate……. Valve deformities that can seriously hamper cardiac function and ultimately weaken the heart.Abnormalities in the conduction system of the heart.Inadequate blood supply to the heart.“Heart block" or "AV block." is when the electrical impulse signal from the heart's upper to lower chambers is impaired or doesn't transmit.Cardiac ischemia is the name for lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle.Heart valve problems: Stenosis is when heart valves don't open enough to allow the blood to flow through as it should. Regurgitation is when the heart valves don't close properly and allow blood to leak through. Mitral valve prolapse is when the valve leaflets bulge or prolapse back into the upper chamber. They may not close properly and blood may leak back through.
10PulsePulseAlternating surges of pressure (expansion then recoil) in an artery that occur with each beat of the left ventricle.Monitored at “pressure points” in arteries where pulse is easily palpatedPulse averages 70–76 beats per minute at rest
12Has an artery or vein been cut? How to tell. Blood from a vein would be darker than from an artery. If you punctured an artery or vein then the blood flow would continue until you put pressure on it to allow for the blood to clot.An arterial cut will spurt blood. Vein will just flow out.
13Blood PressureDEFINITION: The pressure the blood exerts against the inner blood vessel wall.Systolic pressure— pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contractionDiastolic pressure— pressure in the arteries when ventricles relax
14Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure with “Sphygomomanometer” Name of instrument used in determining blood pressure.Figure 11.20a
15Korotkoff Sounds - Auscultatory blood pressure measurement showing onset of Korotkoff sounds at systolic pressure, and diminishing sounds as diastolic pressure is reached. Note that last (diastolic) pulse is barely audible but clearly visible. Sounds of KorotkoffAuscultation is the technical term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscopeAre sounds caused by the resumption of blood flow into the forearm.onset of Korotkoff sounds at systolic pressure, and diminishing sounds as diastolic pressure is reached.Figure 11.20b
16Systolic SoundThe systolic sound is caused by the blood first spurting through the constricted artery
17The disappearance of sound No sound because the blood flows freely because the artery is no longer compressed.
18Blood Pressure Write systolic pressure first and diastolic last 120/80 means the“systolic pressure of 120 mm Hg and diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg”
19Comparison of Blood Pressures in Different Vessels Highest PressureVenous pressure is lower than arterial pressureVeins are farther away from ventricular ejection (blood forced out of heart)Lowest PressureFigure 11.19
20Effect of Various Factors on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
21Blood Pressure: Effects of Factors BP is blood pressureCO is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minutePR is peripheral resistance, or the amount of friction blood encounters as it flows through vesselsBP = CO PRIncreasing CO or PR will increase BPDecreasing CO or PR will decrease heart rate
22Causes of changes to PR BP = CO PR Increasing PR will increase BP Increase PRDecrease PRNarrow Blood Vessel (vasoconstriction)Widen Blood Vessels(vasodialation)ArteriosclerosisIncrease Blood VolumeDecreased Blood Volume (hemorrhage)BP = CO PRIncreasing PR will increase BPDecreasing PR will decrease BP
23Vasoconstriction/Vasodilatation Narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contracting of the muscular wall of the vesselsVasoconstriction/VasodilatationTemperature:Cold VasoconstrictionWarm VasodilatationSympathetic NS (exercise or fright)General vasoconstrictionVasodilatation of blood vessels of skeletal muscleBigger diameter of blood vessel = lower BPSmaller diameter of blood vessel = higher BP
24Viscosity Increased viscosity = higher BP thickness and stickiness: a thick and sticky consistency or qualityIncreased viscosity = higher BPDecreased viscosity = lower BPLow ViscosityHigh Viscosity
25BP = CO PR Increased CO Increased BP Decreased CO Decreased BP Change in COIncrease CODecrease COIncreased pulse rateDecreased pulse rateExercise ->increased pulse rate
26Blood Pressure: Effects of Factors Neural factorsAutonomic nervous system adjustments(sympathetic division)Standing suddenly blood pools in legs and feet BP drops BARORECEPTORS activated Vasoconstriction BP rises
27Reclining or Standing?If you move from a seated or supine position to a standing position, there may be a momentary drop in your blood pressure. This drop occurs because your body experiences a temporary drop in blood volume as 300 to 800 mL of blood pools in your legs. However, special cells called baroreceptors sense this drop and signal the heart to beat faster. Blood vessels will then contract and increase pressure to pump the blood upward. Thus, after an initial drop, you experience a rise in blood pressure when moving from a supine position to standing.
28BP and ExerciseDuring exercise, the systolic pressure increases progressively as the cardiovascular system attempts to deliver more oxygen to the working muscles. The diastolic pressure (the lower number) should stay about the same, or decrease slightly, thanks to the dilated blood vessels in the working muscles that help heat escape
29Blood Pressure: Effects of Factors TemperatureHeat has a vasodilating effectCold has a vasoconstricting effectChemicalsVarious substances can cause increases or decreasesDiet
31Variations in Blood Pressure Normal human range is variableNormal140–110 mm Hg systolic80–75 mm Hg diastolicHypotensionLow systolic (below 110 mm HG)Often associated with illnessHypertensionHigh systolic (above 140 mm HG)Can be dangerous if it is chronic