Presentation on theme: "Homeostasis. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College. What is homeostasis? Process that occurs in all living."— Presentation transcript:
Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College. What is homeostasis? Process that occurs in all living things All organ systems work together to achieve homeostasis Ability of an organism to maintain its internal environment, despite changes to its internal or external environment http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tightrope_artist_Cologne_1.jpg
Definition of Homeostasis: The maintenance of a constant internal environment in the body is called Homeostasis
What is Homeostasis? What do animals need to keep constant? Body cells work best if they have the correct Temperature Osmoregulation- Water balance Blood Pressure Blood pH level Glucose levels Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Levels Your body has mechanisms to keep the cells in a constant environment.
Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College. How does homeostasis work? Feedback pathways A cellular relay race! Specific organs and structures must communicate with each other in response to changes in the body Keeps levels of certain processes within a normal range http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Southern_12_stage-02_1988.jpg
Pathways Negative feedback – a stimulus changes some condition and it triggers a response that reverses the change. (stops the change) Necessary for homeostasis An example of negative feedback is your home’s thermostat Positive feedback - the original stimulus initiates a chain of events that intensify change from an original condition. (increases change) Positive feedback usually moves away from homeostasis. An example of positive feedback is blood clotting.
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Temperature regulation, and water and sunlight regulation in plants are all examples of negative feedback mechanisms. Processes in which an initial change will bring about an additional change in the opposite direction.
POSITIVE FEEDBACK A positive feedback is a process in which an initial change will bring about an additional change in the same direction. An example of a simple positive feedback in everyday life is the growth of an interest-earning savings account. As interest is accrued the principal will begin to grow (assuming money is not withdrawn). As the principal grows, even more interest will be accrued, quickening the rate of principal growth. A good example of a positive feedback system is child birth. During labor, a hormone called oxytocin is released that intensifies and speeds up contractions. The increase in contractions causes more oxytocin to be released and the cycle goes on until the baby is born. The birth ends the release of oxytocin and ends the positive feedback mechanism.
Negative Feedback Loop Example: Holding breath, CO 2 levels rise Control system forces exhale, inhale O 2 / CO 2 level returns to normal
Positive feedback increases change Example: Torn blood vessel stimulates release of clotting factors. Example: Torn blood vessel stimulates release of clotting factors. Once a vessel is damaged, platelets start to cling to the injured site and release chemicals that attract more platelets. The platelets continue to pile up and release chemicals until a clot is formed. –growth hormones stimulate cell division platelets fibrin white blood cell red blood cell blood vessel clot
Controlling body temperature All mammals maintain a constant body temperature. Human beings have a body temperature of about 37ºC. E.g. If your body is in a hot environment your body temperature is 37ºC If your body is in a cold environment your body temperature is still 37ºC
What mechanisms are there to cool the body down? 1. Sweating When your body is hot, sweat glands are stimulated to release sweat. The liquid sweat turns into a gas (it evaporates) To do this, it needs heat. It gets that heat from your skin. As your skin loses heat, it cools down.
2. Vasodilation Your blood carries most of the heat energy around your body. There are capillaries underneath your skin that can be filled with blood if you get too hot. This brings the blood closer to the surface of the skin so more heat can be lost. This is why you look red when you are hot! What mechanisms are there to cool the body down?
If the temperature rises, the blood vessel dilates (gets bigger). This means more heat is lost from the surface of the skin
What mechanisms are there to warm the body up? 1. Vasoconstriction This is the opposite of vasodilation The capillaries underneath your skin get constricted (shut off). This takes the blood away from the surface of the skin so less heat can be lost.
If the temperature falls, the blood vessel constricts (gets shut off). This means less heat is lost from the surface of the skin
What mechanisms are there to warm the body up? 2. Piloerection This is when the hairs on your skin “stand up”. It is sometimes called “goose bumps” or “chicken skin”! The hairs trap a layer of air next to the skin which is then warmed by the body heat The air becomes an insulating layer.
Temperature Regulation in Humans To keep cool: Sweating Vasodilation To keep warm: Vasoconstriction Piloerection Involuntary Muscle Contraction (Shivering)
Homeostasis in Plants What do you think plants need to keep constant? Water Sunlight CO 2 Control of water levels in the plant is important to the survival of the plant. This is achieved by a number of methods: Waxy cuticle on leaves Storage of water Opening and closing of stomates
Stoma Open Stoma Closed Guard Cells Stoma Function of Stomata CO 2 O2O2 H2OH2O What goes in? What goes out? What process involves using CO 2 and H 2 O releasing O 2 as a waste product? Photosynthesis What is the plant using this process to make? Carbohydrates-glucose If the plant needs water for photosynthesis, why is water coming out of the stoma?
Stoma Open Stoma Closed Guard Cells Function of Guard Cells Guard Cells These stomata (leaf openings) allow water and O 2 out of the leaf. Why would the plant close stomata with guard cells? Prevent excess water loss through transpiration. (conserve water) So what is the point of having stomata? Allow gas exchange for photosynthesis and control water loss
Homeostasis in Plants The opening and closing of the stomata maintains water balance in the plant and thus maintains homeostasis. Stems bend towards sunlight to maintain the amount of photosynthesis.