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Endocrine organs and Disorders. Pituitary Gland Lies deep in brain, attached to hypothalmus Anterior pituitary – adenohypophysis (gland)  Tropic hormones.

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Presentation on theme: "Endocrine organs and Disorders. Pituitary Gland Lies deep in brain, attached to hypothalmus Anterior pituitary – adenohypophysis (gland)  Tropic hormones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Endocrine organs and Disorders

2 Pituitary Gland Lies deep in brain, attached to hypothalmus Anterior pituitary – adenohypophysis (gland)  Tropic hormones – stimulates another endocrine gland to secrete hormone Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)– thyroid Adrenocorticotropic hormone –(ACTH) adrenal cortex Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) – ovarian follicles Luteinizing Hormone (LH)- ovulating hormone  Growth hormone – promotes normal growth  Prolactin – lactogenic hormone (breast development for lactation)

3 Disorders of AP Growth hormone  Hypersecretion – gigantism, Acromegaly, hyperglycemia  Hyposecretion – dwarfism Prolactin  Hyper – inappropriate lactation in men and non- nursing women  Hypo – insufficient lactation in nursing women

4 Posterior pituitary Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) – reabsorption of water from urine in kidney to blood, decrease urine volume Oxytocin – stimulates contraction of smooth muscle of uterus, initiate and maintain labor, stimulates milk letdown

5 Disorders of PP ADH  Hyper – abnormal water retention  Hypo – diabetes insipidus – elimination of too much urine – dehydration Oxytocin  Hyper – increase milk flow  Hypo – prolonged labor

6 Hypothalmus Produces ADH and oxytocin (PP only releases them) Releasing hormones – stimulates Anterior pituitary to release hormones Inhibiting hormones – Inhibits anterior pit. release of hormones Hypothalmus functions in nervous and endocrine systems – dominant role in regulation of many body functions: body temp, appetite, thirst

7 Thyroid Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) – speed up cells release of energy from foods, stimulate cellular metabolism Calcitonin – maintains homeostasis of blood calcium, decreases the amount of calcium in the blood, act on bone to inhibit its breakdown, therefore calcium does not move out of bone.

8 Thyroid disorders Hyperthyroidism, increase metabolic rate, lose weight, restless, excessively active Exophthalmus – protruding eyes Graves disease – inherited, hyperthyroidism, bulging eyes Hypothyroidism – under secretion of TH  Goiter – low intake of iodine, enlargement of thyroid to compensate for lack of iodine  Cretinism – low metabolic rate, retarded growth and sexual development  Myxedema – lessened mental and physical vigor, weight gain, loss of hair, accumulation of mucous fluid (eyes)

9 Parathyroid glands Posterior of thyroid, Usually 4, small parathyroid hormone – increase concentration of calcium in blood (opposite of calcitonin) fig. 11-12 Hyper – hypercalcemia Hypo - hypocalcemia

10 Adrenal Glands – top of kidneys Adrenal cortex – outer part, corticoids  Mineralocorticoids, MC’s – aldosterone Control mineral salts in blood (increase sodium, decrease potassium)  Glucocorticoids (cortisol, hydrocortisone) Maintain normal glucose concentration and blood pressure  Sex hormones

11 Adrenal Medulla Inner portion of adrenal gland Epinephrine, Norepinephrine – secreted during stressful situations, works with sympathetic nervous system (adrenaline)

12 Adrenal disorders Hypersecretion of GC’s – usually because of a tumor – Cushing syndrome  Moon face, buffalo bump due to redistribution of body fat, can remove tumor Hypersecretion in inner zone – sex hormones called androgens, results in secondary sex characteristics  In women, caused by virilizing tumor Hyposecretion of adrenal cortex - Addison disease – muscle weakness, low blood sugar

13 Pancreatic islets – islets of Langerhans Scattered among pancreatic cells in pancreas Glucagon – increases the blood glucose concentration Insulin – decreases blood glucose concentration by moving it out of the blood  Hypersecretion - hypoglycemia  Hyposecretion - type 1 diabetes mellitus – high glucose levels in blood Type 2 diabetes – abnormality of insulin receptors

14 Additional endocrine glands Ovary  Ovarian follicles – estrogen, feminizing hormone  Corpus luteum – progesterone Testes  Testosterone – masculinizing hormone Thymus – in mediastinum, contains WBC’s  Thymosin – several hormones that play in important role in the development and function of the body’s immune system

15 More endocrine glands… Placenta – temporarily produce hormones  Chorionic ganadotropins (pregnancy test indicators), estrogen, progesterone Pineal gland – near 3 rd ventricle in brain  Melatonin – regulates puberty and menstrual cycle in females 3 rd eye – optic nerve, increase at night, internal clock and sleep cycle, supplements help to sleep SAD – seasonal affective disorder – high levels

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