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Welcome to “Hazardous Materials Awareness”

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1 Welcome to “Hazardous Materials Awareness”
NFPA Objective 2-1 1

2 Acknowledgments The preparation of this course was made possible through the assistance, cooperation, and dedication of many people. The Washington State Patrol / Fire Services Bureau. Washington State Association of Fire Chiefs and Washington State Association of Fire Chiefs Hazardous Materials Division to thank all of the following persons and organizations for their roles in the development of this course

3 Acknowledgments 1998 Revisions
Washington State Association of Fire Chiefs, Hazardous Materials Division Sgt. Roy Glass, Washington State Patrol Edward B. Lawson, MAFB Fire Dept. Edward Bonollo, Union Gap Fire Dept. Phil Philbin, Auburn Fire Dept. Dave Sauerbrey, Vancouver Fire Dept

4 Scope This course is designed to provide the student with the basic skills necessary to safely and effectively manage the initial activities of an emergency involving the uncontrolled release of dangerous chemicals

5 Scope This class focuses on those individuals in local jurisdictions who are most likely to witness or discover a hazardous substance release, and who are expected by their employer to initiate an emergency response sequence by notifying the proper authorities of the release, taking no further action

6 Scope This class is best suited for:
Emergency prehospital care personnel Emergency telecommunications officers Firefighters Law enforcement officers Private industry workers Public works personnel

7 Course Goal The goal of this training shall be to provide first responders with the knowledge and skills necessary to safely respond to and assess the hazards involved in a chemical emergency and to make necessary notifications

8 Course Goal Successful completion of this training should provide the student with the necessary skills to objectively demonstrate competency in the following areas:

9 Competencies An understanding of the potential outcomes associated with an emergency created when hazardous materials are present The ability to recognize the presence of hazardous materials in an emergency The ability to identify the hazardous materials, if possible

10 Competencies An understanding of the role of the first responder awareness individual in the employer’s emergency response plan including site security and control and the North American Emergency Response Guidebook The ability to realize the need for additional resources, and to make appropriate notifications to the communications center

11 Course Introduction Welcome Your Instructor(s) are….. And you are…..
Name, title, background & experience And you are….. Expectations

12 Course Introduction Class Logistics Start & Finish times Class fees
Length of class periods & breaks Tests Accreditation & certification Class critiques Rest rooms Meals

13 Safety Keypoints Always consider the possibility of multiple hazard categories in each hazard class. Approach all hazardous materials incidents from upwind, upgrade, and upstream, positioning vehicles and apparatus headed away from the incident scene.

14 Safety Keypoints In a hazardous materials incident you may have to delay attending to the injured in order to save the lives of many others First operational priority: Isolate the hazard area and deny entry

15 Safety Keypoints Only those emergency personnel in the proper level of compatible protective clothing and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus “who are actively performing emergency operations” are to operate within the inner perimeter

16 Safety Keypoints Minimum safety perimeter for citizens = 1,000 feet beyond the inner perimeter boundaries in open areas To avoid inhalation hazards, self-contained positive pressure breathing apparatus must be properly worn, used, and maintained

17 Safety Keypoints Never eat, smoke, or drink at or around hazardous materials incident scenes until you decontaminate and wash your hands, face, and hair thoroughly Consult protective clothing compatibility data to ensure available protective clothing is compatible with the hazardous materials involved in the incident

18 Think SAFETY with every breath you take
Safety Keypoints Think SAFETY with every breath you take

19 RESPONSIBILITIES First Responders at the Awareness Level are expected to: Recognize the presence of hazardous materials Protect themselves Call for trained personnel Secure the area NFPA Objective 2-1.2 3

20 Course Goal The goal of this training at the Awareness Level is to provide first responders with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform the following tasks safely: NFPA Objective 2-1.3 4

21 Goals Implement Actions
Consistent with local emergency response plans, the organizations standard operating procedures, and the current edition of the North American Emergency Response Guidebook by completing the following tasks; NFPA Objective 2-1.3 7

22 Goals Implement Actions
Initiate protective actions consistent with local emergency response plans, the organization’s standard operating procedures, and the NAERG. Initiate the notification process NFPA Objective 2-1.3 8

23 First Responder Awareness
Awareness Overview

24 Hazardous Materials “Any substance that poses an unreasonable risk to life, the environment, or property when not properly contained.”

25 Identifying the Problem
Increasing number of incidents. Increased hazardous materials legislation in response to public concern. Resolution responsibility of many agencies. Previous emergency response training stresses taking immediate action.

26 Basic Safety Guidelines
“Proper safety precautions must be taken to reduce risks as much as possible.” Reduce risk through training Responders must be aware of multiple hazards Don’t rush in!!! Positive attitude toward safety is an important part of your protective equipment

27 NAERG Safety Guidelines
When approaching a hazardous materials incident: Approach cautiously Secure the scene Identify the hazards Assess the situation Obtain help Decide on site entry

28 Purpose of Intervention
To favorably change the sequence of natural events in order to minimize the harm to the public, the environment, property and equipment that would occur by natural stabilization.

29 Risk/Benefit Analysis
The benefit (reducing naturally occurring harm) should exceed the risk (harm attributed to intervention).

30 Risk/Benefit Analysis
Low Protecting environment, property or equipment. Moderate Attempt rescue of person(s) with low probability of survival. High Attempt rescue of person(s) with high probability of survival.

31 Decision Algorithm

32 Legislative Mandates for Training
29 CFR Code of Federal Regulations WAC Washington Administrative Rule "Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response"

33 OSHA Response Levels First Responder (Awareness level)
First Responder (Operations level) Hazardous Materials Technician Hazardous Materials Specialist On-Scene Incident Commander

34 First Responder Awareness
Witness or discover a release. Trained to initiate an emergency response sequence by notifying the proper authorities of the release. Take no further action beyond notifying the proper authorities of the release.

35 First Responder Operations
Respond to releases as part of initial response to the site. Protect nearby persons, property or the environment from the effects of the release. Trained to respond in a defensive fashion without actually trying to stop the release. Function is to contain the release from a safe distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent exposures.

36 Hazardous Materials Technician
Respond to releases for the purpose of stopping the release. Trained to respond in an offensive fashion to actually try to stop the release. Approach the point of the release in order to plug, patch, or otherwise stop the release.

37 Hazardous Materials Specialist
Respond with and provide support to hazardous material technicians. Their duties require a more directed or specific knowledge of the various substances they may be called upon to contain. Act as site liaison with Federal, state, local and other government authorities in regards to site activities.

38 On Scene Incident Commander
Individuals who will assume control of the incident scene beyond the first responder Awareness level. This level requires at least Operations-level training, as well as training specific to a hazardous materials incident commander as outlined in the federal regulation.

39 NFPA 472, 1997 Edition Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents Consensus standards Based on input from the fire service, private industry, manufacturers and governmental agencies Voluntary compliance Unless adopted at the state of local level “Standard of care” issues

40 NFPA 472, 1997 Edition Competence required of responders to hazardous materials incidents. First Responder Awareness First Responder Operations Hazardous Materials Technician Hazardous Materials Specialist On-Scene Incident Commander

41 NFPA 472, 1997 Edition Private Sector Employees
Hazardous Materials Branch Officer Hazardous Materials Branch Safety Officer Technician with a Tank Car Specialty Technician with a Cargo Tank Specialty Technician with an Intermodal Tank Specialty

42 NFPA 473, 1997 Edition Applies to all organizations that have EMS responsibilities when responding to hazardous materials incidents. Level 1 HazMat/EMS Level 2 HazMat/EMS

43 Emergency Response Planning
Pre-emergency planning & coordination with outside parties Personnel roles, lines of authority, training & communication Emergency recognition & prevention Safe distances & places of refuge Site security & control Evacuation routes & procedures Decontamination Emergency medical treatment & first aid Emergency alerting & response procedures Critique of response & follow-up Personal protective clothing & emergency equipment

44 Emergency Response Planning
Local agencies may use the local emergency response plan, such as a city or county plan, in lieu of having their own individual agency plan, as long as it contains all of the federally required plan elements.

45 Standard Operating Procedures
Local agencies that choose to use the local emergency response plan instead of developing their own individual agency plan should, as a minimum, develop the federally mandated plan elements into standard operating procedures.

46 Analyzing the Incident Module I
Given various facility and/or transportation scenarios, with and without hazardous materials present, identify those scenarios where hazardous materials are present. NFPA Objective 2-2.1 10

47 Goals Analyze The Incident
To determine both the hazardous materials present and the basic response information by completing the following tasks: Detect the presence of hazardous materials 5

48 Goals Analyze The Incident
Survey a hazardous materials incident, from a safe location, to identify the name, UN/NA identification number, or the type of placard applied Collect hazard information from the current edition of the North American Emergency Response Guidebook (NAERG)

49 Hazardous Materials (Dangerous Goods in Canada)
Definition: Any substance that poses an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of persons and/or the environment if it is not properly controlled during handling, storage, manufacturing, processing, packaging, use, disposal, or transportation. NFPA Objective 11

50 Hazardous Material Definition: United States Department of Transportation (DOT) term that covers all hazard classes and divisions. NFPA Objective 12

51 Hazardous Substance Definition: EPA term for chemicals that, if released into the environment above a certain amount, must be reported, and depending on the threat to the environment, federal involvement handling the incident can be authorized. NFPA Objective 13

52 Extremely Hazardous Substances
Definition: EPA term for chemicals that must be reported to the appropriate authorities if released above the threshold reporting quantity. NFPA Objective 14

53 Toxic Chemicals Definition: EPA term for chemicals whose total emissions or release must be reported annually by owners and operators of certain facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical. NFPA Objective 15

54 Hazardous Wastes Definition: EPA term for chemicals that are regulated under the Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act. NFPA Objective 16

55 Hazardous Chemicals Definition: OSHA term that denotes any chemical that would be a risk to employees if exposed in the work place. NFPA Objective 17

56 Dangerous Goods Definition: In Canadian transportation, hazardous materials are called dangerous goods. NFPA Objective 18

57 Identification Methods
DOT Hazard Classes and Divisions with examples, primary hazards of each class, and their associated placards and labels. NFPA Objective 19

58 Hazard Classes and Divisions
DOT has classified hazardous materials according to their primary hazard and assigned standardized symbols to identify the classes. NOTE: Materials are grouped by their major hazardous characteristic and many will have other hazards as well. NFPA Objective 20

59 Class 1 (Explosives) Major Hazard: Explosion
Any substance or article, including a device, that is designed to function by explosion (i.e an extremely rapid release of gas and heat) or that, by chemical reaction with itself, is able to function by explosion. NFPA Objective 21

60 Divisions DOT has divided Class 1 hazards into 6 divisions.
NFPA Objective 22

61 Class 1.1 Mass explosion that affects almost the entire load
Black powder Dynamite T-N-T Blasting caps Nitroglycerin NFPA Objective 23

62 Class 1.2 Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
Aerial flares Detonation cord Power device cartridges NFPA Objective 24

63 Class 1.3 Fire hazard and either a minor blast or minor projection hazard Liquid-fueled rocket motors Propellant explosives NFPA Objective 25

64 Class 1.4 Presents a minor explosion hazard Practice ammunition
Signal cartridges NFPA Objective 26

65 Class 1.5 Very insensitive explosives with mass explosion hazard
Prilled ammonium nitrate fertilizer Blasting agents NFPA Objective 27

66 Class 1.6 Extremely insensitive explosives
Does not have a mass explosion hazard. NFPA Objective 28

67 Class 2 Compressed Gases
Major Hazard: BLEVE Sub Hazards Flammable Oxidizer Poisonous Corrosive Divided into 3 divisions NFPA Objective 29

68 Class 2.1 Flammable Gases A material that is a gas at 68 degrees F or less at 14.7 psi or has a boiling point of 68 degrees or less at 14.7 psi. Ignitable at 14.7 psi in a mixture of 13% or less by volume Has a flammable range of at least 12% regardless of the lower limit. NFPA Objective 30

69 Placard (Flammable) Red background White frame FLAMMABLE GAS 2
NFPA Objective 35

70 Class 2.2 Nonflammable, Nonpoisonous Gases
Any material or mixture that exerts an absolute pressure of 41 psia at 68 degrees F. Compressed gases, including liquefied gas, pressurized cryogenic gas, and compressed gas in solution. NFPA Objective 31

71 Placard (Non-Flammable)
NON-FLAMMABLE GAS Green background White cylinder NFPA Objective 36

72 Placard (Oxygen) Yellow background Flaming “O” OXYGEN
NFPA Objective 37

73 Class 2.3 Poisonous Gas Vaporize easily and very dangerous to life, even in small amounts. Known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health during transportation. Presumed to be toxic because of laboratory testing. NFPA Objective 32

74 LC-50 (Lethal Concentration, 50%)
Concentration of a material, expressed as parts per million which kills half of the lab animals in a given length of time. Significant in determining the toxicity of a material; the lower the value, the more toxic the substance. NFPA Objective 33

75 Examples of Class 2.3 Gases
Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride Arsine Chlorine Methyl bromide Cyanide gas Hydrocyanic acid Diphosgene 2.4 Gases (Canadian) NFPA Objective 34

76 Placards (Poison Gas) White background Skull & crossbones POISON GAS 2
NFPA Objective 38

77 Class 3 Flammable Liquids
Major Hazard: Burns readily Flammable and combustible liquids NFPA Objective 39

78 Flammable Liquids Any liquid having a flash point (FP) of not more than 141 degrees F. Three divisions 3.1 - FP < 0 degrees F 3.2 - FP 0 to < 73 degrees F 3.3 - FP 73 to < 141 degrees F NFPA Objective 40

79 Combustible Liquid Any liquid that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class and has a flash point above 141 degrees F and below 200 degrees F. NOTE: A flammable liquid with a flash point at or above 100 degrees that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class except 9, may be reclassified as combustible. NFPA Objective 41

80 Class 3 Placards FLAMMABLE Flammable:
Red background, white flame with the word “FLAMMABLE” Flame pictograph NFPA Objective 42

81 Class 3 Placards Combustible: COMBUSTIBLE
Red background, white flame with the word “COMBUSTIBLE” UN class number NFPA Objective 43

82 Class 4 (Flammable Solids)
Major Hazard: Rapid combustion with a liberation of mass quantities of smoke (toxic). Divided into 3 divisions NFPA Objective 44

83 4.1 Flammable Solids Three types Wetted explosives
Self-reactive materials Readily combustible solids NFPA Objective 45

84 Wetted Explosives Explosives wetted with sufficient water, alcohol, or a plasticizer to suppress explosive properties. NFPA Objective 46

85 Self Reactive Materials
Materials that are liable to undergo, at normal or elevated temperatures, a strongly exothermic decomposition. NFPA Objective 47

86 Readily Combustible Solids
Solids that may cause a fire through friction and metal powders that can be ignited. NFPA Objective 48

87 4.2 Spontaneously Combustible Materials
Self-heating material - a material that, when in contact with air and without an energy supply, is liable to self-heat. NFPA Objective 49

88 Pyrophoric Materials A liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within 5 minutes after coming in contact with air. NFPA Objective 50

89 Dangerous When Wet Materials
4 Material that, by contact with water is liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate of greater than 1 l/kg. NFPA Objective 51

90 Class 5 (Oxidizers) 2 Divisions
Major Hazard 5.1: Supports combustion and intensifies fire. Major Hazard 5.2: Unstable/reactive explosives NFPA Objective 52

91 5.1 Oxidizers Materials that may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials. OXIDIZER 5.1 NFPA Objective 53

92 5.2 Organic Peroxides Any organic compound containing oxygen in the bivalent O-O structure that may be considered a derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals. Organic peroxides have been further broken down into types a-g (worst to least hazardous). NFPA Objective 54

93 Placard Organic Peroxides
5.2 Yellow background Flaming “O” with words “Organic Peroxide” NFPA Objective 55

94 Class 6 Poisons Major Hazard: Toxicity, Infectious 2 Divisions
NOTE: Poisonous gases are Class 2 Division 3 NFPA Objective 56

95 6.1 Poisonous Materials A material, other than a gas, that is either known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a hazard to health during transportation, or in the absence of adequate data on human toxicity, is presumed to be toxic to humans, including irritating materials that cause irritation. NFPA Objective 57

96 Poison 6.1 Placard 6.1 White background Skull and crossbones
NFPA Objective 58

97 6.2 Infectious Substances
A viable microorganism, or its toxin, that causes disease in humans or animals. Infectious substance and etiologic agents are the same. NFPA Objective 59

98 Class 6 Poisons Class 6 materials are divided into 3 packaging groups (PG). PG I or II, other than PG I inhalation hazard PG III NFPA Objective 60

99 Class 7 Radioactive RADIOACTIVE
Major Hazard: Radioactive poisonous burns Definition: Materials having a specific activity greater than microcurie per gram. RADIOACTIVE NFPA Objective 61

100 Class 8 Corrosives Major Hazard: burns/emulsification skin damage.
Definition - A liquid or solid that causes visible or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at the site of contact, or a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum. NFPA Objective 62

101 Class 8 Placard White top Black bottom Test tubes Hand and steel bar
NFPA Objective 63

102 Class 9 Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials
A material that presents a hazard during transport, but that is not included in another hazard class NFPA Objective 64

103 Class 9 Division 9.1 - Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods (Canada)
Division Environmentally Hazardous Substances (Canada) Division Dangerous Wastes (Canada) NFPA Objective 65

104 Other Regulated Materials (ORM-D)
A material that presents a limited hazard during transportation due to its Form Quantity Packaging No placard NFPA Objective 66

105 Forbidden Materials Materials prohibited from being offered or accepted for transportation. Does not apply if the materials are diluted, stabilized, or incorporated in devices. There is no placard for these items since they aren't transported. NFPA Objective 67

106 System Limitations Dangerous placard 2,205 lbs or 1,000 kg. limitation
Visibility Unclassified materials and exemptions NFPA Objective 68

107 Table 1 Hazard Classes & Placards
Explosives 1.1 Explosive 1.2 Explosives 1.3 Poison Gas Dangerous When Wet 5.2 (Organic Peroxide Organic Peroxide Type B, Liquid or solid, temperature controlled) 6.1 (PG inhalation hazard, Poison Inhalation Hazard Zone A & B) 7.0 (Radioactive, Yellow Label III) Radioactive 1

108 Table 2 Hazard Classes & Placards
Explosives 1.4 Explosives 1.5 Explosives 1.6 Flammable Gas Non-Flammable Gas 3.0 (flammable Liquid) Flammable Liquid 3.0 (combustible liquid) Combustible Liquid Flammable Solid Spontaneously Combustible Oxidizer

109 Table 2 Hazard Classes & Placards
5.2 (other than organic peroxide, Type B) Organic Peroxide 6.1 (PG I & II, other than, Poison PG I inhalation hazard) 6.1 (PG III) Keep Away From Food (None) Corrosive Class 9 ORM-D (None)

110 Hazardous Materials Incidents Versus Other Emergencies
Potential for doing great harm since effects are far reaching and severe. Responders must be specially trained and equipped. Often have long term effects to the environment, people, and property. NFPA Objective 69

111 Typical Locations & Occupancies Containing Hazardous Materials
Warehouses Tank farms Weapons depots Hospitals Laboratories Truck terminals Flight line areas Maintenance facilities NFPA Objective 70

112 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Area
Front of Pool Supply Store Upper Left - Picture of a Liquefied Compressed gas storage area. Lower Right - Front of a pool supply store Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Area NFPA Objective 71

113 Pre-Incident Planning
People developing pre-incident plans should seek assistance from facility managers in identifying hazardous materials locations and record them on the plan in a way that will be useful to the first arriving responders. NFPA Objective 72

114 Remember!!!!! Hazardous materials that are manufactured, stored, processed, or used at a particular site are NOT subject to regulations affecting transported materials. Picture of an Ammonia Trailer in the front with a processing and storage area in the background. Processing area is NOT affected by transport regulations, the Ammonia trailer is. NFPA Objective 73

115 Typical Container Shapes That May Indicate Hazardous Materials
NFPA Objective 74

116 Radioactive Container Shapes
Protective overpacks Cylindrical configuration Boxlike configuration Casks Rigid metal packaging Reinforcing rings and cooling fins NFPA Objective 75

117 Radioactive Container Shapes
Fiberboard Wooden Boxes Steel Drums NFPA Objective 76

118 Radioactive Cask NFPA Objective 77

119 Pressurized Container Shapes
Cylinders MC-331 tank trailer Pressure tank car Tube trailers, tube modules, high pressure tube cars NFPA Objective 78

120 Pressurized Containers
Compressed Gas Cylinders Aerosol Cans Tube Module NFPA Objective 79

121 MC 331 Bolted Manway Large Hemishpere Ends Cage Around Piping
NFPA Objective 80

122 Pressure Tank Car Expansion Dome No visible Fittings Poison Gases
4, ,000 gallons 100 to 600 psi Flammable/Nonflammable Gases Poison Gases NFPA Objective 81

123 High Pressure Tube Trailer
Permanently Attached Horizontal Cylinders NFPA Objective 82

124 Cryogenic Containers Tank-within-a-tank or “Thermos bottle” design
Absence of top fittings on most containers MC - 338 Cryogenic tank car NFPA Objective 83

125 MC 338 Ends Normally Flat Loading/Unloading Station at Rear
Loading Sometimes Located Here Loading/Unloading Station at Rear NFPA Objective 84

126 Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car
Low Pressure Liquids (25 psig or lower) Refrigerated to -155 degrees and below NFPA Objective 85

127 Corrosive Containers Carboys MC - 312 Glass or plastic bottles
Encased in a protective box MC - 312 Long thin tank with stiffener rings Working platform on top NFPA Objective 86

128 Corrosive Containers Carboy in Wooden Box Carboy in Polystyrene
NFPA Objective 87

129 MC 312 Small Diameter “Cigar Shape” Rounded Ends
Exterior Stiffner Rings NFPA Objective 88

130 Flammable Liquid Containers
Drums Jerricans MC - 306 Non-pressure tank car NFPA Objective 89

131 Flammable Liquid Containers
Jerricans Wooden Barrel NFPA Objective 90

132 MC 306 Oval Cross Section Longitudinal Rollover Protection
Valving and Unloading Controls Under Tank NFPA Objective 91

133 Non-Pressure Tank Car Also called “General Service” or “Low Pressure”
Older cars have expansion domes No Expansion Dome Visible Fittings 4, ,000 gallons NFPA Objective 92

134 Dry Bulk Containers Pneumatic hopper trailer
“V” shaped bottom Rounded sides and sloping ends Pneumatically unloaded hopper car Flat or rounded sides NFPA Objective 93

135 Dry Bulk Carriers Compressor Unit Large Sloping “V” Shaped Bottom
NFPA Objective 94

136 Facility & Transportation Markings & Colors May Indicate Hazardous Materials
NFPA Objective 95

137 UN/NA ID Numbers 1026 UN Class numbers (bottom of placard)
POISON GAS 2 UN Class numbers (bottom of placard) Hazard class or ID number on placard or orange panel Symbols and colors Name of material 1026 NFPA Objective 96

138 Military Hazardous Materials Marking System
NFPA Objective 97

139 Class 1, Division 1 Materials that present a mass denotation hazard
NFPA Objective 98

140 Class 1, Division 2 Presents an explosion with fragmentation hazard
NFPA Objective 99

141 Class 1, Division 3 Materials with a mass fire hazard
NFPA Objective 100

142 Class 1, Division 4 Materials that present a moderate fire hazard
NFPA Objective 101

143 Special Warnings Chemical hazards Highly Toxic Harassing Agents
White Phosphorus Munitions NFPA Objective 102

144 Special Warnings Wear Protective Breathing Apparatus Apply No Water
NFPA Objective 103

145 Special Hazard Communication Markings
Hazardous Materials Information System PCB Labels NFPA Objective 104

146 Pipeline Markers Pipeline markers are usually metal signs placed adjacent to a hazardous materials pipeline right of way. NFPA Objective 105

147 Pipeline Markers Ownership of Line Petroleum Signal Word
Name of carrier Phone number Signal Word Caution Warning Danger Transported Commodity Petroleum NFPA Objective 106

148 NFPA 704 Markings Suggested method for identifying hazardous materials
Scale of 0-4 (4 being the worst hazard) Used only for facilities when mandated by local ordinances NFPA Objective 107

149 NFPA 704 Colors and Their Meanings
W _ 1 2 3 4 1. Blue = Health 2. Red = Flammability 3. Yellow = Reactivity 4. White = Special NFPA Objective 108

150 3 4 3 2 1 HEALTH - Too Dangerous to Enter -- Vapor or Liquid
- Extremely Dangerous -- Use Full Protective Clothing - Hazardous -- Use Breathing Apparatus - Slightly Hazardous - Like Ordinary Material 3 3 2 1 NFPA Objective 109

151 2 4 3 2 1 FLAMMABILITY - Extremely Flammable - Ignites at Normal
Temperatures - Ignites When Moderately Heated - Must Be Preheated to Burn - Will Not Burn 2 3 2 1 NFPA Objective 110

152 1 4 3 2 1 REACTIVITY - May Detonate -- Evacuate Area
if Materials are Exposed to Fire - Strong Shock or Heat May Detonate -- Use Monitors From Behind Explosion Resistant Barriers - Violent Chemical Change Possible -- Use Hose Streams From Distance - Unstable if Heated-- Use Normal Precautions - Normally Stable REACTIVITY 3 1 2 1 NFPA Objective 111

153 W W OX ALK ACID SPECIAL INFORMATION - Avoid Use of Water - Oxidizer
- Used by some to Indicate Alkaline Materials - Used by Some to Indicate Acidic Materials OX W ALK ACID NFPA Objective 112

154 Location of NFPA 704 Markers
2 3 W NFPA Objective 113

155 Material Safety Data Sheets
Why they are necessary Federal Law Right to know Mandatory local communication on hazard OSHA requirements Central location With facility manager/employer NFPA Objective 114

156 MSDS (Basic Information)
Manufactures name and location Name and family of chemical Hazardous ingredients Physical data Fire and explosion data NFPA Objective 115

157 MSDS (Basic Information)
Health Hazard Data Spill or Leak Procedures Special Protection Information Special Precautions

158 Material Safety Data Sheets
MSDS Entries General Information Hazardous ingredients statement Physical data Fire and explosion data Spill and leak control procedures NFPA Objective NFPA Objective 116

159 Material Safety Data Sheets
Special Protection Information Special Precautions (Other as necessary) Health and Reactivity Hazard Data Including Toxicology Information Signs and Symptoms of Exposure Emergency Care Chemical Incompatibilities and its decomposition products!

160 MSDS Sample Information
NFPA Objective 117

161 Shipping Papers NFPA Objective 118

162 Shipping Paper Entries
Proper shipping name Hazard class or division Product Identification Number NFPA Objective 119

163 NFPA Objective 120

164 Titles of Shipping Papers
Highway - Bill of lading/freight bill Rail - Waybill and consist Water - Dangerous cargo manifest Air - Air bill with shippers certification for restricted articles NFPA Objective 121

165 Location of Shipping Papers, Responsible Person
Highway - cab of vehicle - Driver Rail- Engine or caboose - with conductor or engineer Water - Wheelhouse or pipelike container on a barge - Captain or master Air - Cockpit/flightdeck or attached to package - pilot NFPA Objective NFPA Objective 122

166 Identification Clues Examples of clues (other than occupancy/ location, container shape, markings/colors, placards/labels, MSDS, and shipping papers) that use the senses of sight, sound and odor to indicate hazardous materials. NFPA Objective 123

167 Using Senses to Detect Hazardous Materials
Odor Sight Sound Informal Methods NFPA Objective 124

168 Limitations of Using Senses
Odor Sight Sound Risk of Injury NFPA Objective 125

169 Targets for Criminal or Terrorist Activity
Places of public assembly Public buildings Mass transit system Places of high economic impact Telecommunications activities Places of historical or symbolic significance NFPA Objective 126

170 Indications of Terrorist or Criminal Activity
Equipment that is not relevant to a location Intentional releases of hazardous materials Unexplained illness or death Unusual odors or tastes Irritations Unusual security measures NFPA Objective 127

171 Given Examples Facility and transportation situations involving hazardous materials, the first responder at the awareness level shall identify the hazardous material(s) in each situation by name, UN/NA identification number, or type placard applied. NFPA Objective 128

172 Difficulties in Determining Specific Names
Facilities Labels or placards missing Label or placard shows no product identifier Mixed loads Error in placarding or labeling Shipping papers are not accessible Facility Manager or MSDS’s not available NFPA Objective 129

173 Names Sources for ID# or Placards
North American Emergency Response Guidebook Shipping Papers NFPA Objective 130

174 Sources in Facilities MSDS Markings on containers
Emergency planning documents NFPA Objective 131

175 Implementing The Planned Response Module II

176 Identify the basic precautions to be taken by the awareness level responder to protect themselves and others in a hazardous materials incident. IAW the Emergency Response Plan (ERP) or SOP’s. 132

177 Basic Precautions Isolate the hazard area
Evacuate those in danger Deny entry If evacuation is not possible Provide in-place protection Keep away from doors and windows NFPA Objective 133

178 Basic Precautions Basic precautions to be taken by the awareness level responder are to protect themselves and others in a hazardous materials incident IAW the Local Emergency Response Plan or SOP’s. NFPA Objective 134

179 Providing Medical Care
Precautions necessary when providing emergency medical care to victims of hazardous materials. Victim may be contaminated No PPE Understanding your limitations will prevent you from becoming a victim. NFPA Objective 135

180 Typical Ignition Sources
Heated sources Frictional heat Radiant heat Smoking materials Lighting open flames Spontaneous ignition Static Electricity Chemical Reactions NFPA Objective 136

181 Ways Hazardous Materials are Harmful
Thermal Mechanical Poisonous Corrosive Asphyxiation Radiation NFPA Objective 137

182 General Routes of Entry
Contact Absorption Inhalation Ingestion NFPA Objective 138

183 Routes of Entry for Human Exposure
Contact & Absorption Inhalation Ingestion NFPA Objective 139

184 140

185 Objective Given the name, UN/NA identification number or type placard, a current copy of the North American Emergency Response Guidebook a local response plan and standard operating procedures, and a facility or transportation scenario including hazardous materials, collect hazard information, initiate protective actions, and the notification process. 141

186 Orange Pages Guide Numbers
Yellow Pages ID Number Orange Pages Guide Numbers Green Pages Initial Isolation Blue Pages Chemical Name NFPA Objective 142

187 Determine The Appropriate Guidebook Page
Four digit ID# (yellow pages) Spelling of the product (blue pages) Placards (table of placards) Dealing with an unknown Use Guide #111 NFPA Objective 143

188 General Types of Hazards
Found on Each Guide Page Fire and Explosion Health hazard “P” polymerization hazard NFPA Objective 144

189 Response Information Emergency actions from numbered guide pages
Protective clothing Initial isolation and protective action distances NFPA Objective 145

190 Protective Clothing Recommended clothing in the North American Emergency Response Guidebook Street clothing Structural fire fighter protective clothing Positive pressure SCBA Chemical-protective clothing NFPA Objective 146

191 Protective Actions North American Emergency Response Guidebook definitions Isolate hazard area and deny entry Evacuate the area Sheltering in-place NFPA Objective 147


193 Circumstances under which different distances are used
Difference between small and large spills as found in the table of isolation distances Small spill Large spill Circumstances under which different distances are used NFPA Objective 149

194 Large Spill Small Spill NFPA Objective 150

195 Difference Between Orange & Green Pages
Isolation distance in the Orange pages Used to protect from immediate hazards Materials not highlighted Protective action distance in the Green pages Used for materials that present a toxic hazard. Highlighted materials only. NFPA Objective 151

196 Location of Emergency Response Plans
Local Emergency Response Plan and the Standard Operating Instructions Applicable to each jurisdiction Kept with the responsible agency NFPA Objective 152

197 Role of the Awareness Level First Responder
Guidelines are found in: The local emergency response plan. The organization’s standard operating procedures. North American Emergency Response Guidebook NFPA Objective 153

198 Techniques Used Techniques used to isolate the hazard area and deny entry Use a vehicle to block a road Rope-off or barricade entrance to area Notify law enforcement to divert traffic Close doors to facility Use public address system NFPA Objective 154

199 Involving Criminal or Terrorist Activity
Communicate the suspicion during notification Isolate potentially exposed people Document the initial observation NFPA Objective 155

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