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PORNOGRAPHY DETRIMENTAL SEQUELAE OF CHILDREN’S EXPOSURE

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Presentation on theme: "PORNOGRAPHY DETRIMENTAL SEQUELAE OF CHILDREN’S EXPOSURE"— Presentation transcript:

1 PORNOGRAPHY DETRIMENTAL SEQUELAE OF CHILDREN’S EXPOSURE
EMERITUS PROFESSOR TUVIAH ZABOW 25 July 2010

2 DETRIMENTAL SEQUELAE are the effects permanent ?
the neuroscience evidence for the Addictive process

3 Pornography may be defined as
material designed to excite sexual interest or desire.

4 1.Children /adolescents learn ideas of adult sexual behaviour
2. Portrayal are extremely suggestive 3. Rarely exposed to responsible sexual behaviour 4. Pornography is a useful tool for paedophiles and sexual predators Add to these structural (physical) and metabolic (functional/physiological) alterations

5 Further research is indicated as to why various adolescents view the same content differently.
There are many ways that P harms children. Every child who views P will not be affected or traumatised in the same way. Exposure interferes with a child’s development and identity.

6 The tip of the iceberg Pornography generates high levels of arousal
Emotional desensitisation Callous attitudes to sexual violence Irresponsibility

7 Addiction is the result of :
repetitive experience high emotion related high frequency exposure.

8 Neuroscience evidence for addiction
The human brain is programmed to provide incentives for behaviours that contribute to survival(“fight or flight”). The addictive nature of over-consumption of natural behaviours which cause a biochemical (dopaminergic) reward to be experienced in the brain. The mesolimbic-dopaminergic system rewards eating and sexuality with powerful pleasure incentives. contd..

9 The effects however are progressive and addictive
Contd…. Drugs of various forms subvert these pleasure systems and cause the brain to think a drug high is necessary for survival. Food and sex affect the reward systems in the same way as drugs affect them. The effects however are progressive and addictive This results in a neuroadaptation ( i.e. changes in circuitry) and helps to perpetuate the behaviour.

10 “There a common pathway for addictions”
Not every person who takes a drink/drug or every child exposed to Pornography automatically becomes a sexual deviant but the locus of control and access is different.

11 Three A’s: Accessibility Anonymity Affordability
Pornographic images are freely available to virtually everyone including unfortunately to children Three A’s: Accessibility Anonymity Affordability Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003

12 The study of natural addictions relates to Pornography in that both anatomical (structural) and metabolic(functional) perspectives are evident .

13 Neocortex (Thinking brain)

14 “Thinking brain” Neocortex is the seat of thought or the “thinking brain”; it contains the centers that put together and comprehend what the senses perceive. It’s role is largely to maintain mental balance and to inhibit and control psyche and conduct Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003

15 Limbic system (“primitive brain”)
Richard Restak. The Brain: Learning & Memory, New York Press, 1984

16 “primitive brain” Limbic Structures generate : feelings of pleasure,
fear, pain, suspicion sexual desire

17 Fight or flight reaction survival

18 New techniques of brain scanning structural and functional

19 Brain scanning can measure :
level of depression suspicion anxiety irritation joy fear hate or other feelings triggered by specific thoughts.

20 MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging)

21 PET scan (positron emission tomography)

22 sPECT scan of brain

23 DAT scan measures levels of dopamine (“intensity of pleasure”)

24 1. Normal, natural human emotions involve both higher brain and primitive brain
Love between mother and child – mammals vs reptiles (that do not have a prefrontal cortex or neocortex).

25 2. Normal natural human love involves both higher brain and primitive brain
Natural love between two sexes: Neocortex (cognitive functions) is involved. Person is attractive, good for me, believes what I believe, likes what I like etc.

26 Why do pornographic images causes intense arousal ?
Pornographic/erotic images combination of feelings of : surprise fear anger hate disgust hostility lust Judith Reisman. Viewing Pornography for a living can be deadly. Salvo Autumn, 2009: 23-25 David Freedberg. The Power of Image. The University of Chicago, 1989:p1 Barlow, Sakheim & Beck. Anxiety Increases Sexual Arousal. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 92, 1983.

27 The effects of the arousal
“Cocktail” of poly-drug erototoxins: Powerful hormones: Testosterone Neurotransmitters: Dopamine Oxitocin Norepinephrine (Adrenaline) Serotonin Bill Moyers. Healing and the Mind. Doubleday, New York, 1993: p177 Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003

28 Nerve cells

29 Synapse

30 Dopamine (feeling of pleasantness) chemically similar to cocaine
Sandra Ackerman. Discovering the Brain. Institute Of Medicine Washington DC, 1999: p76-77 Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003

31 Serotonin similar to LSD
Sandra Ackerman. Discovering the Brain. Institute Of Medicine Washington DC, 1999: p76-77 Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003

32 Other neurotransmitters Endorphines (morphine produced in the body)
Sandra Ackerman. Discovering the Brain. Institute Of Medicine Washington DC, 1999: p76-77 Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003

33 DAT scanner: measures “intensity of pleasure” or levels of dopamine
Nice plate of food 1200 1000 Sexual Pleasure 800 600 400 Chrystal Meth 200 Food Sex Chryst Meth

34 “Cocktail” of poly-drug erototoxins:
Powerful hormones Testosterone (endogenous steroid, men’s fight or flight hormone) Sandra Ackerman. Discovering the Brain. Institute Of Medicine Washington DC, 1999: p76-77 Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003

35 Pornographic images: why are they addictive?
1) Erototoxins: Anxiety and fear Novelty effect Element of surprise (attraction to “mystery” objects – gambling) 2) Reward system through sexual gratification Judith Reisman. Viewing Pornography for a living can be deadly. Salvo Autumn, 2009: 23-25 David Freedberg. The Power of Image. The University of Chicago, 1989:p1 Barlow, Sakheim & Beck. Anxiety Increases Sexual Arousal. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 92, 1983.

36 Pornographic addiction carries the signs of a classical addiction
The similarities between drug addiction and natural addiction to pornographic addiction The similarity to “erototoxins” to the external drug

37 1. Pornography is Progressive
In an addict (after a period of time): The erototoxins released by the brain when looking at sexual material no longer give the same arousal An addict will have to increase the frequency of their viewing OR explore a new area of pornography in order to get the pleasurable feeling they once had

38 2. Pornography is Progressive
The presence of erototoxins causes the brain to adapt to its new environment An addict is now Physically Dependent on the erototoxin as the brain now needs it to function normally The brain now expects high levels of erototoxins in its system

39 3. Pornography is Progressive
Normal Brain After withdrawal A brain that has been withdrawn from the erototoxin is under-stimulated and under-active The reduced brain activity makes withdrawal extremely difficult and relapse highly likely

40 A child’s brain is being programmed at crucial periods for sexual orientation.
During this period the brain is "hard wired” to what is arousing or attractive for that person. Pornography short circuits the normal personality development process by introducing children prematurely to sexual sensations or abnormal sex when developmentally unprepared.

41 Mood altering effect The sexual excitement obtained are mood altering in which arousal is paired repeatedly and likely to become permanent. Early exposure is related to greater involvement in abnormal sexual practices, particularly rape and child molestation

42 Sexual education Exposure of children gives a message of sexuality without responsibility is acceptable and desirable. Sexual expression without responsibility endangers childrens’ health (become perpetrators of child abuse) Pornography constitutes a powerful but deforming toll of sex education and development leading to disturbing changes in attitudes: Increased sexual callousness Trivialisation of sexual violence Distorted perceptions about sexuality Development of an appetite for more deviant, bizarre or violent forms

43 Cline’s stages of addiction of pornography
Addiction phase The desire and need to keep coming back for pornographic images. Escalation phase The need for more explicit, rougher, and more deviant images for the same sexual effect. Desensitisation phase Material once viewed as shocking or taboo is seen as acceptable or commonplace. Acting out phase The tendency to perform the behaviours viewed, including exhibitionism, sadistic/masochistic sex, rape or sex with minor children.

44 CONCLUSION Social and Psychological Effects explained by the neuroscience Pornography gravitates to paedophilia Non-violent porn produce aggressive behaviour (Volkow) Sex and violence is one of the most dangerous types of combinations. Exposure to these materials has a negative effect on attitudes toward women and the perceived likelihood to rape. Some other effects of pornography Isolation because: Shame (increases with more perverse addictions) Poor interpersonal relationships (temper tantrums) Prefer to rather associate with others in sex subculture

45 Pornography addiction more difficult to treat than other drugs
One can not be detoxified from pornography because it is: An addiction to multiple drugs Since pornography is an addiction to endogenous drugs which unlike exogenous drugs can not be detoxified from the brain, even new therapeutic modalities may not help the addict With so many of the brain’s systems entangled with one another, it could prove impossible to adjust to just one without throwing others into imbalance

46 A sex addict continuously allows the primitive brain (limbic system) to override the thinking brain (neo-cortex)

47 Effect on child’s brain
The limbic system (amygdala and hippocampus) matures very quickly in a child’s brain – long before other brain structures

48 “Erototoxins” and minors:
Children can instantly grasp, “feel”, “experience” and remember images before they can speak

49 The science is compelling,
no-one can easily argue against the addictive nature of pornography or the structural damage it can cause.

50 References and acknowledgements :
Albu Van Eeden Judith Reisman David Feltin Joseph LeDoux Gary Lynch Peter M. Milner Edward Sheridan Martin M Teicher Daniel Goleman Jack Fincher Eric Nesler Daniel Amen Nick Ashton Donald Hilton


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