Presentation on theme: "PORNOGRAPHY DETRIMENTAL SEQUELAE OF CHILDREN’S EXPOSURE"— Presentation transcript:
1 PORNOGRAPHY DETRIMENTAL SEQUELAE OF CHILDREN’S EXPOSURE EMERITUS PROFESSOR TUVIAH ZABOW25 July 2010
2 DETRIMENTAL SEQUELAE are the effects permanent ? the neuroscience evidence for the Addictive process
3 Pornography may be defined as material designed to excitesexual interest or desire.
4 1.Children /adolescents learn ideas of adult sexual behaviour 2. Portrayal are extremely suggestive3. Rarely exposed to responsible sexual behaviour4. Pornography is a useful tool for paedophiles and sexual predatorsAdd to these structural (physical) and metabolic (functional/physiological) alterations
5 Further research is indicated as to why various adolescents view the same content differently. There are many ways that P harms children.Every child who views P will not be affected or traumatised in the same way.Exposure interferes with a child’s development and identity.
6 The tip of the iceberg Pornography generates high levels of arousal Emotional desensitisationCallous attitudes to sexual violenceIrresponsibility
7 Addiction is the result of : repetitive experiencehigh emotion relatedhigh frequency exposure.
8 Neuroscience evidence for addiction The human brain is programmed to provide incentives for behaviours that contribute to survival(“fight or flight”).The addictive nature of over-consumption of natural behaviours which cause a biochemical (dopaminergic) reward to be experienced in the brain.The mesolimbic-dopaminergic system rewards eating and sexuality with powerful pleasure incentives.contd..
9 The effects however are progressive and addictive Contd….Drugs of various forms subvert these pleasure systems and cause the brain to think a drug high is necessary for survival.Food and sex affect the reward systems in the same way as drugs affect them.The effects however are progressive and addictiveThis results in a neuroadaptation ( i.e. changes in circuitry) and helps to perpetuate the behaviour.
10 “There a common pathway for addictions” Not every person who takes a drink/drug or every child exposed to Pornography automatically becomes a sexual deviant but the locus of control and access is different.
11 Three A’s: Accessibility Anonymity Affordability Pornographic images are freely available to virtually everyone including unfortunately to childrenThree A’s:AccessibilityAnonymityAffordabilityJudith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003
12 The study of natural addictions relates to Pornography in that both anatomical (structural) and metabolic(functional) perspectives are evident .
14 “Thinking brain”Neocortex is the seat of thought or the “thinking brain”; it contains the centers that put together and comprehend what the senses perceive.It’s role is largely to maintain mental balance and to inhibit and control psyche and conductJudith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003
15 Limbic system (“primitive brain”) Richard Restak. The Brain: Learning & Memory, New York Press, 1984
23 DAT scan measures levels of dopamine (“intensity of pleasure”)
24 1. Normal, natural human emotions involve both higher brain and primitive brain Love between mother and child – mammals vs reptiles (that do not have a prefrontal cortex or neocortex).
25 2. Normal natural human love involves both higher brain and primitive brain Natural love between two sexes:Neocortex (cognitive functions) is involved.Person is attractive, good for me, believes what I believe, likes what I like etc.
26 Why do pornographic images causes intense arousal ? Pornographic/erotic images combination of feelings of :surprisefearangerhatedisgusthostilitylustJudith Reisman. Viewing Pornography for a living can be deadly. Salvo Autumn, 2009: 23-25David Freedberg. The Power of Image. The University of Chicago, 1989:p1Barlow, Sakheim & Beck. Anxiety Increases Sexual Arousal. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 92, 1983.
27 The effects of the arousal “Cocktail” of poly-drug erototoxins:Powerful hormones:TestosteroneNeurotransmitters:DopamineOxitocinNorepinephrine (Adrenaline)SerotoninBill Moyers. Healing and the Mind. Doubleday, New York, 1993: p177Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003
30 Dopamine (feeling of pleasantness) chemically similar to cocaine Sandra Ackerman. Discovering the Brain. Institute Of Medicine Washington DC, 1999: p76-77Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003
31 Serotonin similar to LSD Sandra Ackerman. Discovering the Brain. Institute Of Medicine Washington DC, 1999: p76-77Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003
32 Other neurotransmitters Endorphines (morphine produced in the body) Sandra Ackerman. Discovering the Brain. Institute Of Medicine Washington DC, 1999: p76-77Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003
33 DAT scanner: measures “intensity of pleasure” or levels of dopamine Nice plate of food12001000Sexual Pleasure800600400Chrystal Meth200FoodSexChrystMeth
34 “Cocktail” of poly-drug erototoxins: Powerful hormonesTestosterone(endogenous steroid, men’s fight or flight hormone)Sandra Ackerman. Discovering the Brain. Institute Of Medicine Washington DC, 1999: p76-77Judith A. Reisman. The Psychopharmacology of Pictorial Pornography. The Institute of Media Education, 2003
35 Pornographic images: why are they addictive? 1) Erototoxins:Anxiety and fearNovelty effectElement of surprise (attraction to “mystery” objects – gambling)2) Reward system through sexual gratificationJudith Reisman. Viewing Pornography for a living can be deadly. Salvo Autumn, 2009: 23-25David Freedberg. The Power of Image. The University of Chicago, 1989:p1Barlow, Sakheim & Beck. Anxiety Increases Sexual Arousal. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vol. 92, 1983.
36 Pornographic addiction carries the signs of a classical addiction The similarities between drug addiction and natural addiction to pornographic addictionThe similarity to “erototoxins” to the external drug
37 1. Pornography is Progressive In an addict (after a period of time):The erototoxins released by the brain when looking at sexual material no longer give the same arousalAn addict will have to increase the frequency of their viewing OR explore a new area of pornography in order to get the pleasurable feeling they once had
38 2. Pornography is Progressive The presence of erototoxins causes the brain to adapt to its new environmentAn addict is now Physically Dependent on the erototoxin as the brain now needs it to function normallyThe brain now expects high levels of erototoxins in its system
39 3. Pornography is Progressive Normal BrainAfter withdrawalA brain that has been withdrawn from the erototoxin is under-stimulated and under-activeThe reduced brain activity makes withdrawal extremely difficult and relapse highly likely
40 A child’s brain is being programmed at crucial periods for sexual orientation. During this period the brain is "hard wired” to what is arousing or attractive for that person.Pornography short circuits the normal personality development process by introducing children prematurely to sexual sensations or abnormal sex when developmentally unprepared.
41 Mood altering effectThe sexual excitement obtained are mood altering in which arousal is paired repeatedly and likely to become permanent.Early exposure is related to greater involvement in abnormal sexual practices, particularly rape and child molestation
42 Sexual educationExposure of children gives a message of sexuality without responsibility is acceptable and desirable.Sexual expression without responsibility endangers childrens’ health (become perpetrators of child abuse)Pornography constitutes a powerful but deforming toll of sex education and development leading to disturbing changes in attitudes:Increased sexual callousnessTrivialisation of sexual violenceDistorted perceptions about sexualityDevelopment of an appetite for more deviant, bizarre or violent forms
43 Cline’s stages of addiction of pornography Addiction phaseThe desire and need to keep coming back for pornographic images.Escalation phaseThe need for more explicit, rougher, and more deviant images for the same sexual effect.Desensitisation phaseMaterial once viewed as shocking or taboo is seen as acceptable or commonplace.Acting out phaseThe tendency to perform the behaviours viewed, including exhibitionism, sadistic/masochistic sex, rape or sex with minor children.
44 CONCLUSIONSocial and Psychological Effects explained by the neurosciencePornography gravitates to paedophiliaNon-violent porn produce aggressive behaviour (Volkow)Sex and violence is one of the most dangerous types of combinations.Exposure to these materials has a negative effect on attitudes toward women and the perceived likelihood to rape.Some other effects of pornographyIsolation because:Shame (increases with more perverse addictions)Poor interpersonal relationships (temper tantrums)Prefer to rather associate with others in sex subculture
45 Pornography addiction more difficult to treat than other drugs One can not be detoxified from pornography because it is:An addiction to multiple drugsSince pornography is an addiction to endogenous drugs which unlike exogenous drugs can not be detoxified from the brain, even new therapeutic modalities may not help the addictWith so many of the brain’s systems entangled with one another, it could prove impossible to adjust to just one without throwing others into imbalance
46 A sex addict continuously allows the primitive brain (limbic system) to override the thinking brain (neo-cortex)
47 Effect on child’s brain The limbic system (amygdala and hippocampus) matures very quickly in a child’s brain – long before other brain structures
48 “Erototoxins” and minors: Children can instantly grasp, “feel”, “experience” and remember images before they can speak
49 The science is compelling, no-one can easily argue against the addictive nature of pornography or the structural damage it can cause.
50 References and acknowledgements : Albu Van EedenJudith ReismanDavid FeltinJoseph LeDouxGary LynchPeter M. MilnerEdward SheridanMartin M TeicherDaniel GolemanJack FincherEric NeslerDaniel AmenNick AshtonDonald Hilton