Presentation on theme: "Individual differences. Definitions Deviation from social norms –Set of rules we have, don’t follow them. E.g. queuing Failure to function adequately."— Presentation transcript:
Definitions Deviation from social norms –Set of rules we have, don’t follow them. E.g. queuing Failure to function adequately –Daily routine/normal pattern of behaviour. Especially if cause observer discomfort, are unpredictable, are irrational or personal distress. Deviation from ideal mental health –Jahoda. 6 characteristics; self actualisation, autonomy, integration (resistant to stress), self attitudes, perception of reality, adaptability
Evaluating Deviation from social norms –Until 1980 homosexuality considered a disorder. What about desirable behaviour? Where is the cut off? Cultural differences. Some ‘abnormal’ behaviour quite common i.e. mild depression Failure to function adequately –Context of behaviour. Cultural differences. Some disorders can have periods where they seem ‘normal’. Could be due to circumstance/situation out of persons control. Deviation from ideal mental health –Culturally bias –rooted in western culture i.e. autonomy. Does anyone actually match this ideal mental state? Some elements very subjective –how do we measure self attitudes? Ask someone? Will this be correct?
Biological Mental illness similar to physical illness Caused by at least one of the following –Genetics –Huntington’s –Neurotransmitters –Schizophrenia and dopamine –Infection –Syphilis –Brain injury –Phineas Gage
Biological treatments Drugs Antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors e.g. Prozac), antipsychotics (Chlorpromazine which blocks dopamine at synapses), mood stabilisers. Electroconvulsive therapy Electric shock, fraction of a second long to the brain, induces a seizure similar to epilepsy. Psychosurgery Frontal lobotomy, now electric current or laser used
Strengths of biological approach Research shows that it is possible there is a genetic link It is scientific No blame –it is not the fault of the individual Treatments can work
Limitations of biological approach Not a complete explanation Reductionist Drugs don’t always work Patients could become passive Focus on curing symptoms not stopping the cause Ethical problems –addiction to drugs, suppressing rather than curing symptoms
Psychodynamic Conscious and unconscious Personality –ID, Ego, Superego. Ego balances demands of other two, abnormal if can’t. Psychosexual development –Stages of development. If become fixated at a stage causes abnormality. Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital. Defence mechanisms used, repression, displacement and denial.
Psychodynamic treatments Free-association –Client is allowed to talk freely about their past and analyst interprets what they say Dream analysis –Keep a diary of dreams and analyst interprets them. Hypnosis (optional)
Evaluation Its unique Client can understand he cause of their problem Focus on there being psychological issues Subjective interpretations Not scientific Time consuming and expensive Reliability on memory Focus on past not current symptoms.
Evaluation Scientific and testable Therapies can be effective Ignores genes and biology Ignores cognition Don’t always work –schizophrenia Ethics Doesn’t deal with cause just behaviour
Cognitive model Thoughts and beliefs Ellis –ABC, activating event, belief, consequence. Rational or irrational belief Beck –Cognitive triad, self, world, future. Negative thoughts about self go round and round.
Cognitive treatments Cognitive behaviour therapy Ellis –Change irrational thought to rational Beck –Change negative thought to more realistic and positive.
Evaluation Useful for depression Considers thoughts and beliefs Successful treatments Allows client to take control Thoughts may not be the cause Time consuming and expensive Blaming the person Sometimes works better when mixed with other treatments e.g. drugs.
Questions on individual differences 1.Give one definition of abnormality (1mark) 2.Describe two criteria you would expect in someone who was psychologically healthy (4 marks) 3.Outline one weakness of defining abnormality in terms of mental health (2 marks) 4.Outline two definitions of abnormality (6 marks) 5.Identify one definition of abnormality and explain one limitation associated with this definition (3 marks) 6.Explain one limitation of the behavioural approach to psychopathology (2marks) 7.Outline what is involved in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (3 marks) 8.Describe the key features of the behavioural approach to psychopathology (4 marks) 9.Outline on limitation of the behavioural approach to psychopathology (2 marks) 10.Describe the use of ECT in treating abnormality (4 marks) 11.Explain how a therapist might use systematic de-sensitisation to help Hamish overcome his phobia (6 marks)