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Magnetic Flux and Faraday’s Law of Induction

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Questions 1.What is the name of the disturbance caused by electricity moving through matter? 2.How does an MRI work? 3.What does Faraday say about induced electromagnetic fields (emf)? 4.What is the formula used for calculating the current induced by emf?

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Electric currents (in a wire, in a plasma, in a fluid solution, inside an atom) produce a disturbance in the surrounding space called the magnetic field. This magnetic field produces forces on any other macroscopic or microscopic currents. Example: MRI: Magnetic field (several Tesla) from superconducting solenoid induces a net alignment of the microscopic currents inside each and every proton at the center of the Hydrogen atoms in your body Electric Currents produce Magnetic Fields

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Induced emf (Voltage) from changing Magnetic Flux Electric currents produce magnetic fields. 19 th century puzzle: Can magnetic fields produce currents? A static magnet will produce no current in a stationary coil. Faraday: If the magnetic field changes, or if the magnet and coil are in relative motion, there will be an induced emf (and therefore current) in the coil. Key Concept: The magnetic flux through the coil must change. This will induce an emf in the coil, which produces a current I = /R in the coil. Such a current is said to be induced by the varying B-field.

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Questions 5.What is magnetic flux? 6.Describe the formula for calculating magnetic flux 7.Describe how to use the right hand rule (RHR) to predict the direction of a magnetic field 8.Describe Faraday’s formula for induction

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Magnetic Flux For a “loop” of wire (not necessarily circular) with area A, in an external magnetic field B, the magnetic flux is: SI units of Magnetic Flux: 1 T·m 2 = 1 weber = 1 Wb A = area of loop = angle between B and the normal to the loop

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Current Loop Reminder: Current in a loop generates a magnetic field (and therefore magnetic flux). The magnetic field generated by this current is into the page inside the loop, and out of the page outside the loop. RHR: Point your (right-hand) thumb along the direction of the current. Your fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field (and the magnetic flux). OR Curl your fingers around the loop in the direction of the current. Your (right-hand) thumb points in the direction of the magnetic field this current generates through the loop.

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Faraday’s Law of Induction Faraday’s Law: The instantaneous emf in a circuit (w/ N loops) equals the rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit: The minus sign indicates the direction of the induced emf. To calculate the magnitude:

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Examples of Induced Current Any change of current in primary induces a current in secondary. 9. If the primary coil produces 12 volts how many volts will be in the secondary?

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Questions 10.Describe the induced current caused by a primary coil 11.Describe and induced current created by the motion of a magnet through a coil 12.Describe induced current created by rotational motion of a magnet in a coil

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Induced Current The current in the primary polarizes the material of the core. –The magnetic field of the primary solenoid is enhanced by the magnetic field produced by these atomic currents. –This magnetic field remains confined in the iron core, and only fans out and loops back at the end of the core. Any change in the current in the primary (opening or closing switch) produces a change in the magnetic flux through the secondary coil. This induces a current in the secondary.

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Induction by Relative Motion When a permanent magnet moves relative to a coil, the magnetic flux through the coil changes, inducing an emf in the coil. In a) the magnitude of the flux is increasing In c) the flux is decreasing in magnitude. In a) and c) the induced current has opposite sign. v v

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Induction by Rotational Motion As a coil rotates in a constant magnetic field (uniform or not) the flux through the loop changes, inducing an emf in the coil.

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This is a plot of the magnetic flux through a coil as a function of time. At what times shown in this plot does (a) the magnetic flux and (b) the induced emf have the greatest magnitude?

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Question 13. State Lenz’s Law 14. What is an Eddy Current? 15. What does a generator do? 16. Emf = NBA sin( t), describe the components of this formula 17. Describe self-induction

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Lenz’s Law Lenz’s Law: An induced current always flows in a direction that opposes the change that caused it. In this example the magnetic field in the downward direction through the loop is increasing. So a current is generated in the loop which produces an upward magnetic field inside the loop to oppose the change. Magnet moving down toward loop N S Induced current Induced B field

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moving If the moving conductor is part of a circuit, the flux through the circuit will change with time and a current will be induced (Area of loop = Ls): s x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x v L R

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Eddy Currents When a conductor is moved in a magnetic field, there is a force on the electrons, which then move in the metal. This movement is called an eddy current. The induced currents cause magnetic fields which tend to oppose the motion of the metal.

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Generators A generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Consider a current loop which rotates in a constant magnetic field: The magnetic flux through the loop changes, so an emf is induced. If a loop of area A with N turns rotates with angular speed (period of rotation = ) in a constant B field then the instantaneous induced emf is: NBA sin( t) If this loop is part of a circuit, this emf will induce an Alternating Current (AC) in the circuit.

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Generator A coil of wire turns in a magnetic field. The flux in the coil is constantly changing, generating an emf in the coil.

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Self-Inductance If you try to change the current in a circuit instantaneously, the response will instead be gradual. This is because the circuit produces a self-induced emf to initially oppose any changes as prescribed by Lenz’s Law. This effect is known as self- induction. This does not violate the Newtonian principle of no-self- forces, because in effect individual electrons in the current are exerting forces on the other electrons in the same circuit.

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Questions 18. Describe the formula for inductance 19. What is the unit used for inductance? 20. Describe the formula for inductance in a selenoid 21. Describe the formula for energy stored in an inductor

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Inductance The self induced emf is given by: where L is called the inductance of the circuit. The magnetic flux through the loop, produced by current in the loop, is proportional to the current. The inductance L is the constant of proportionality. The unit of inductance is the Henry 1 H = 1 T·m 2 /A = 1 (T·m 2 /s) (s/A) = 1 V·s/A Note that inductance, like capacitance, is purely geometrical.

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Inductance of a Solenoid A solenoid has inductance given by L = inductance of the solenoid N = # of turns in solenoid l = length of solenoid A = cross sectional area of solenoid n = # of turns per unit length

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RL Circuits We can construct a circuit from inductors and resistors. The circuit will behave just like an RC circuit, with a time constant given by: = L/R

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Energy Stored in an Inductor Just as energy can be stored in a capacitor (recall that U= ½CV 2 ), energy can also be stored in an inductor: U = ½LI 2 Whereas energy in a capacitor is stored in the electric field between the plates, energy in an inductor is stored in the magnetic field within the inductor.

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Transformers A transformer is a device used to change the voltage in a circuit. AC currents must be used. 75,000 V in the power lines 120 V in your house p = primary s = secondary

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22. A disk drive plugged into a 120-V outlet operates on a voltage of 9.0 V. The transformer that powers the disk drive has 125 turns on its primary coil. (a) Should the number of turns on the secondary coil be greater than or less than 125? (b) Find the number of turns on the secondary coil.

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