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Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice Chapter 6

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1 Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice Chapter 6
Information Processing and Cognitive Theories of Learning This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2003

2 Organizing Questions What Is Information Processing Model?
What Causes People to Remember or Forget? How Can Memory Strategies Be Taught? What Makes Information Meaningful?

3 Organizing Questions How Do Cognitive Skills Help Students Learn?
What Study Strategies Help Students Learn? How Do Cognitive Teaching Strategies Help Students Learn?

4 Information-Processing Theory
“Cognitive Theory of Learning that describes the Processing, Storage, and Retrieval of Knowledge in the Mind.”

5 Sensory Register Perception Attention Gaining Attention

6 Short-Term Memory Working Memory Rehearsal Working Memory Capacity
Individual Differences

7 Long-Term Memory Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Procedural Memory
Flashbulb Memory Semantic Memory Schemata Procedural Memory

8 Schema for the Concept “Cat”
Description Small Furry Non-mammals Diet Meat Loves Tuna Animals Cat Mammals Non-cat Uses Catch Mice Companions

9 Factors Enhancing Long-Term Memory
Type of Information Time Degree of Learning Instructional Strategies

10 Other Information Processing Models
Levels-of-Processing Theory Dual Code Theory Visual Verbal Parallel Distributed Processing Model Connectionist Models

11 Research on the Brain Brain Specialization Hemispheric Asymmetry
Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Importance of Early Stimulation Plasticity Efficiency

12 Forgetting and Remembering
Interference Retroactive Inhibition Proactive Inhibition Individual Differences Facilitation Proactive Retroactive Primacy Effects Recency Effects Automaticity Implications for Education

13 Practice Massed Practice Distributed Practice Enactment

14 How can Memory Strategies be Taught?
“If students can memorize the routine things more efficiently, they can free their minds for tasks that involve understanding and reasoning.” (p. 194)

15 Verbal Learning Paired-Associate Learning Serial Learning
Free-Recall Learning

16 Paired-Associate Learning
Imagery Keyword Mnemonics Research Findings

17 Serial and Free-Recall Learning
Loci Method Pegword Method Initial-Letter Strategies

18 Rote versus Meaningful Learning
Rote Learning Meaningful Learning Uses of Rote Learning Inert Knowledge

19 Schema Theory Hierarchies of Knowledge
The Importance of Background Knowledge

20 How Do Metacognitive Skills Help Students Learn?
Metacognition Metacognitive Skills Thinking Study Skills Self-Assessment Prediction Self-Questioning Strategies

21 Helpful Study Strategies
Note Taking Underlining Summarizing Writing to Learn Outlining and Mapping The PQ4R Method

22 Making Learning Relevant and Activating Prior Knowledge
Advance Organizers Analogies Elaboration

23 Organizing Information
Using Questioning Techniques Using Conceptual Models Graphs Charts Tables Matrices

24 End of Chapter 6

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