4 Body Growth & Development After the first year, babies continue to grow, but not as quickly as they did during infancy.Toddlers’ organ systems continue to mature, too.
5 Height & WeightToddlers grow at different rates due to environment and heredity. Heredity affects a baby’s height. It also affects how fast the baby grows taller. Because genes determine height, they also influence weight.The environment, though, affects weight more than genes. Because of these factors, toddlers sometimes grow at different rates than norms predict for their age.
6 Years 1 & 2Body growth begins to slow once a baby turns one. Babies grow about half as much in height as they did as infants.Most babies triple their birthweight in the first year then gain only ¼ of that during the 2nd year.Most girls reach 53% of their adult height by 2 yrs old. Boys usually reach 50% of their adult by age 2. Therefore it is often true that a tall 2 year old will be a tall adult.
7 After year 2When a toddler turns 2 they begin to grow at a slower but steadier rate. They tend to gain about 2-3” and about 6 lbs per year throughout childhood.Se pg. 292 for growth rates
8 Other Body changesThe body proportions of a 2 year old still differ from those of an adult. At 24 months (2 yrs), the head is ¼ the total height. A toddler’s abdomen and chest are about the same size. By 30 months (2 ½ yrs) the chest is larger than the abdomen. As the child matures, the difference between chest and abdomen size will become even greater. The child’s body type will become evident during the toddler years.
9 Bones & teethAs toddlers grow, their bones continue to become harder. Due to the cartilage, the toddler’s bones are more flexible and less likely to break than an adult’s.The bones are more prone, however, to disease or deformation.The toddler’s soft spots (fontanels) are closed or almost closed.The toddler’s spine becomes S shaped rather than C shaped like an adult’s, allowing the posture to become straighter and more upright.
10 The BrainBy the end of the 2nd year (about to be 2 yrs old), the brain is 4/5ths its adult weight. The brain is now closer to maturity than any other organ. The other body organs continue to grow but they do so at a slower rate than the brain.Discussion: What principle is this an example of?
11 Fat and Muscle tissueFat deposits under the skin decrease rapidly between 9 & 30 months.Muscle development (the lengthening and thickening of the muscles) is slow during the toddler stage.
12 Motor DevelopmentToddlers improve the motor skills they’ve developed as infants. But, they learn new skills too.Large muscle development refers to the development of the trunk and arm and leg muscles. Movements such as crawling, walking, jumping and running depend on these large muscles.Toddlers love using these large muscles. When they’re held in one place too long they begin squirming. (And squirming is an example of a large muscle movement)
13 WalkingMost toddlers begin to walk without support within 2-3 months before or after their 1st birthday. Why do they walk at different ages? Soe are furstrated or fearful when they fall when trying. Others may not be interested because creeping gets them where they want to go. Girls often walk before boys. Lighter babies may walk earlier than heavier babies. Although some conditions are helpful, babies learn in their won time. They need love, support, a positive reaction to their attempts and a safe area.
14 Walking cont.Pushing babies to walk early may not help, and may be harmful.Beginning walkers:They stand with their feet wide apart which gives them a wider base of support they turn their feet outward and slightly flex their knees. Some walk on their tiptoes because they have not learned to lower their heels yet. A babies’ first steps often see like staggers.(short video clip:It is hard for babies to balance their large heads, and fall often.A flat spine causes the toddler to tilt forward slightly when walking. This posture changes as the toddler grows.
15 Walking at 2 yearsAt 2 yrs old, a baby’s walk may look like a run but it is not.Video clip: 2 year old walking danceToddlers take about 170 steps per minute while adults take about 85. Can you imagine taking 170 steps while the adults whose hand you’re holding takes 85 steps? No wonder toddlers get tired of walking so quickly!
16 RunningTrue running begins around 2 years old. They’re not skillful runners at this time because of the placement of their arms. They tend to hold their arms up or out while they run. Running is also awkward because toddlers cannot start or stop quickly.
17 JumpingStepping off low objects at about 18 months is the way children learn to jump. At around 2 children can jump off low objects with 2 feet. However, they move their arms backward instead of helping the jump by swinging their arms forward.