Payback This measures the time it takes to recover enough cash to cover an initial investment or outlay Example: A new machine for a mental pressings business will cost $100,000 and generate $25,000 extra sales revenue each year Formula: initial investment/ annual cash flow from investment
The Average Rate of Return (ARR) This measures the profitability or accounting of a project over its useful time It considers all data and not just cash flows up to the point of payback Formula: net return (profit) per annum/ capital outlay (cost) x 100 = %
Working Capital Money needed by a business for its day-to-day or immediate needs Businesses try to squeeze working capital by making it move quickly toward cash The working capital cycle will help you appreciate how cash is used by the business and how it moves from one stage to another Working capital is used to buy raw materials, which are turned into finished goods and then sold to customers via invoice
Working Capital Continued The customer or debtor, on paying the invoice, returns cash to the business This cash is then recycled into raw materials and some of it is also used to pay suppliers’ invoices and maybe even reduce the bank overdraft Controlling the working capital cycle links closely with an accountant’s role to manage cash and forecast cash flow needs
Strategies to Improve Cash Flow Offer prompt payment discounts to its customers Delay paying its suppliers by asking for an extended credit period Negotiate better interest rates on loans Possibly sell off some of its non-core assets Spread or smooth out quarterly rental or utility bills to avoid sudden rises in overdraft position; cut back on wages, etc
Final Accounts Are financial statements that inform stakeholders about the financial profile and performance of the business. o one group of statements covers the years trading, its profit or loss, and how that profit/loss was distributed at the end of the financial year. o The other is the balance sheet, which discloses what the business owns (assets); owes other people (liabilities); and how it has funded (the capital employed) its net assets (assets less liabilities)
The Trading & Profit and Loss Account The trading or manufacturing account looks at the costs of production. The profit and loss account presents the sales revenue of the company for a given period of time. o it also shows the related costs in making that sales revenue and finally it shows how the resulting profit is used.
How are accounts used by Stakeholders? Shareholders o accounts inform shareholders of how efficient the organization is at investing their capital and making a good return, how safe their investment is, or if the business is likely to fail, and generally whether the directors are performing on their behalf or need to be replaced or possibly re-incentivized. Directors, Managers, and Employees o accounts inform these people about the financial viability of their employer and it may be useful to them or their trade unions to have profit figures when negotiating salary changes.
How are accounts used by Stakeholders? Continued Suppliers o Assess whether the business is secure and liquid enough to pay off its debts o Assess whether the business is a good credit risk o Decide whether to press for early repayment of outstanding debts Customers o Assess whether a business is secure o Determine whether they will be assured of future supplies of the good they are purchasing o 3. Establish whether there will be security of spare parts and service facilities
How are accounts used by Stakeholders? Continued Citizens can use this information to better understand the financial strength or weakness of a local business. Competitors Business will use published accounts to try and see how well their competitors are doing.
Ratio Analysis Is a management tool for analysing and judging the financial performance of a business. This is done by calculating financial ratios from a firm's final accounts (namely the balance sheet and profit and loss account).
Liquidity & Liquidation Liquidity: The ability of a firm to be able to pay its short-term debts. Liquidation: When a firm ceases trading and its assets are sold for cash.
Profitability Gross Profit/ Sales revenue X 100 This indicates what the return is after we take variable costs like production wages and materials from our sales revenue. Net Profit Margin Net Profit/Sales Revenue X 100 o Profit left after all costs, both variable and fixed.
Stock Turnover Ratios Cost of sales/Average Stock = Number of times Investor Ratios Gearing: Long-term loan capital/total capital employed X 100
Working Capital The capital needed to pay for raw materials, day-to-day running costs and credit offered to customers. Without working capital, a business will not be able to pay its immediate (or short-term) debts. Working Capital=Current Assets – Current Liabilities
Cash Flow The timing of payments to workers and suppliers and receipts from customers. The sum of cash payments to a business (inflows) less the sum of cash payments made by it (outflows).
How to Increase Cash Flow MethodHow it WorksEvaluation Overdraft (Credit Line) Flexible loans in which businesses can draw at any time. Interest rates can be high Can be rescinded by the bank Short-Term LoanA fixed amount can be borrowed at any time. Interest must be paid The loan must be repaid Sale of AssetsCash can be raised by selling redundant assets. Selling assets quickly can result in a low sales price The assets might be needed later The assets could be used as collateral for future loans Sale and LeasebackAssets can be sold and leased back at a reduced price. Leasing costs add to overhead Could be loss of profit on sale of asset The asses could be used as collateral for future loans Reduce Credit terms to customers Cash flow can be brought forward from reducing terms from 60 days to 30 days. Customers may change to different firm for their purchases Debt FactoringSell Accounts Receivable to raise cash. The debt purchases company will not pay full value for the A/R Customer may perceive the company is in financial trouble
How to Reduce Cash Flow MethodHow it WorksEvaluation Delay payments to suppliers (creditors) Cash outlays will fall in short term if bills are paid in 2 months instead of 1 month Suppliers may reduce discounts offered Suppliers may demand cash on delivery or refuse to supply if they feel the risk of not being paid is too high Delay spending on capital equipment By not buying equipment cash will not have to be paid Business may become inefficient if outdated equipment is not replaced Expansion becomes difficult Use leasing not outright purchase of equipment No large cash outlay is required The asset is not owned by the business Leasing charges are added to overhead Cut overhead spending that does not affect output – like advertising Costs will not reduce production capacity or sales but cash payments will be reduced Future demand may be reduced by failing to promote your product effectively.