Objective Pronouns Singularplural 1MeUs 2You 3 HimThem Her It Demonstrative Pronouns Singularplural 1ThisThese 2ThatThose Singularplural 1ThisThese 2ThatThose Demonstrative Adjectives I saw him yesterday. She asks me about them every day. This book is mine. Those shoes are too big for me. What is that? I have already been watching this.
Past Simple Tense Formation (1) Statement clause: a) Regular verbs: verb + -ed He played the piano yesterday. b) Irregular verbs: verb form from 2nd column of the List of Irregular Verbs. We went to the seaside last year.
Past Simple Tense Formation (2) Interrogative clause: Did + statement clause (main verb in infinitive!) They played football. Did they play football? I saw Jim. Did I see Jim?
Past Simple Tense Formation (3) Negative clause: Subject - did not (didn’t) - predicate (infinitive) They did not play football. He did not play the piano.
Past Simple Tense Usage Actions that are completed in past, before the moment of speaking I passed the exam yesterday. Facts about the past The Second World War ended in 1945. Habitual actions in past She smoked 10 cigarettes a day last year.
Past Simple Tense Auxilliary verb “to be” Interrogative clause: WasI.../Were you.../Was she... Negative clause: I was not.../You were not... Singularplural 1I wasWe were 2You were 3 He wasThey were She was It was
Nouns Types: Common and proper Countable and uncountable Concrete, abstract, building Collective Gender: Masculinum (he, Jim, dog) Feminum (she, Jane, bitch) Neutrum (table, book, car)
Countable Nouns (1) Singular - Plural boy - boys Difference - differences Plural = singular noun + s/es
Countable Nouns (2) When the last letters of singular nouns are ch, sh, s, ss or x, it is us usually added -es to form the plural. beach - beaches boss - bosses box - boxes
Countable Nouns (3) When the noun ends in -y preceded by a consonant, -y changes to -i and -es is added to form the plural. lady - ladies strawberry - strawberries If -y is preceded by a vowel, the noun plural is made in regular way, by adding -s boy - boys monkey - monkeys
Countable Nouns (4) If a noun ends in -f, -f often changes to -v, and -es is added to form the plural. leaf - leaves thief - thieves It is similar with some words that end in -fe, -f is changed to -v and -s is added. knife - knives wife - wives
Countable Nouns (5) If a noun ends in -o, in some situations it makes plural by adding -es, while in other only -s should be added. Sometimes, both solutions are possible. hippo - hipposhero - heroes video - videospotato - potatoes but zero - zeroes/zeros mosquito - mosquitos/mosquitoes
Countable Nouns (6) Some plural nouns don’t follow the -s rule. They don’t end in-s, -es, -ies or -ves. Instead, the word changes form. mouse - micechild - children goose - geesetooth - teeth foot - feetox - oxen man - men woman- women
Countable Nouns (7) Some plural nouns are the same as the singular noun. sheep, deer, fish, bison... Some nouns are always plural. binoculars, scissors, pliers, trousers, slippers...
Collective Nouns Collective nouns are words for groups of people, animals or things. band, choir, group, team, herd, class, cattle, bunch Many collective nouns can be used with a singular or plural verb. My family was happy to see me. My family were happy to see me. Nouns cattle, people and police always take the plural verb.