3 What are Sexually Transmitted Infections? Sexually transmitted infections or STIs are a term to describe over 25 different infections that can be transmitted through sexual activity, vaginal sex, oral sex, anal sex, or bodily fluids
5 Who is at Risk for an STI? Anyone who is sexually active Anyone who has sexual contact of any kind with an infected personMany people do not know they are infected and spread the disease without knowingTeenagers are at the highest risk for STIs and most often get infected with STIs
7 Top 10 Risk Factors for Getting an STI 1. Unprotected Sex 2. Multiple Sex Partners 3. Being under 25 and/or having sex for the first time at an early age 4. Alcohol Use 5. Drug Use6. Trading Sex for Money/Drugs 7. Living in a community with a high prevalence of STDs (BOSTON) 8. Serial Monogamy 9. Having an STD 10. Only Using Birth Control
8 Different Types of STIs BACTERIALChlamydiaGonorrheaSyphilisAll bacterial STDs can be treated with antibiotics
9 Different Type of STIsVIRAL Herpes HIV/AIDS Genital Warts (HPV) There is no cure for viral STIs Medication can be given to treat only symptoms of these STIs
10 Different Types of STIs PROTOZOA Crabs (Pubic Lice) All STIs caused by protozoa can be treated and cured with antibiotics or medicated creams
12 Chlamydia Bacterial STI that affects both boys and girls The MOST COMMON STICauses: Any type of unprotected sexual activity including vaginal sex, oral sex, or anal sex
13 Chlamydia: Signs & Symptoms BOYSGIRLSMay have no symptomsBurning sensation while peeingPain during sexRectal pain or dischargeTesticular painDischarge from the penisOnly 30% of women who have Chlamydia have symptomsBurning sensation while peeingPain during sexStomach pain- nausea and vomitingRectal pain or dischargeMilky vaginal dischargeMay never be able to have children if it goes untreated
16 Gonorrhea Bacterial STI that affects both boys and girls Very common Causes: Any type of unprotected sexual activity including vaginal sex, oral sex, or anal sexCan even get gonorrhea infections in the eyeGonorrhea is not transmitted through such casual contact as hugging, shaking hands, sharing food, using the same eating utensils, drinking from the same glass, sitting on public toilets, or touching door knobs.
17 Gonorrhea: Signs & Symptoms BOYSGIRLSMay have no symptomsBurning or pain while peeingPeeing more frequentlyWhite, yellow, or green discharge from the penisRed or swollen opening of the penisSore or swollen testiclesSore throat (ORAL GONORRHEA)May have no symptomsVaginal itchingWhite, yellow, or green vaginal dischargeBurning or pain while peeingPeeing more frequentlyPain during sexFeverSevere lower abdominal painSore throat (ORAL GONORRHEA)
22 Syphilis Bacterial STI that affects both boys and girls Very easily spreadCauses: Direct contact with the sores, vaginal sex, oral sex, and anal sex.Syphilis is not transmitted through such casual contact as hugging, shaking hands, sharing food, using the same eating utensils, drinking from the same glass, sitting on public toilets, or touching door knobs.
23 Syphilis: Signs & Symptoms STAGE 1: Primary SyphilisPainless sores or ulcers in or on genitals or mouthIf syphilis is not treated at this stage, it will move on to Stage 2
30 Syphilis: Signs & Symptoms Stage 3: Latent SyphilisMay have no obvious symptoms but the infection remains in the bodyMay cause irreversible damage to organsCan still spread the disease without knowing
31 Syphilis: Signs & Symptoms Stage 4: Tertiary SyphilisSerious damage to the nervous system, heart, brain, or other organs, and death may resultThis stage can result in mental illness, blindness, deafness, memory loss, heart disease, and neurological issues
36 Herpes Transmission is possible even when no sores are present. Causes:Skin-to-skin contactAnal sexVaginal sexOral sexKissingTransmission is possible even when no sores are present.There is no cure for herpes and once someone gets it, it stays with them forever.
37 Herpes: Signs & Symptoms HSV- 1HSV-2Usually on the mouth/lips“Cold Sore” or “Fever Blister”Can also occur on the genitals or eyePainful open red blistersFlu-like symptomsDisappears within daysUsually on the genitals but can occur on the lipsOccurs 1-2 weeks after exposureTingling sensation in the affected areaA group of small red bumps/blisters appearPainful/Itchy
42 Herpes: Treatment There is no cure for Herpes. Antiviral medications can reduce the frequency of outbreaks and speed the healing of the outbreaks
43 Genital Warts (HPV)Genital Warts are caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV)Can lead to cervical cancer in womenCan be transmitted when warts are not presentCauses:Sexual contactVaginal sexOral sexAnal sexDirect skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual.
44 Genital Warts (HPV): Signs & Symptoms Small gray/flesh colored swelling in the genital areaSeveral cauliflower shaped warts on the genital areaItching or discomfort in the genital areaBleeding during sex
48 Genital Warts (HPV): Prevention Vaccine: GardasilOnly protects you from certain strains of HPVTalk to your doctor about getting the vaccineCondoms: May not fully protect you from HPV because of the way it is transmitted but more effective than having unprotected sex
49 Genital Warts (HPV): Treatment There is no cure for HPV Many HPV infections will resolve on their own without causing any long-term harmSome may cause long term complications such as cervical cancer in women so it is very important for girls to get annual PAP smears when they become sexually activeHPV may require treatments to remove warts or abnormal cells
50 HIV/AIDS Virus that is present in: Causes: Blood Semen Vaginal secretionsBreast milkCauses:Unprotected anal sexUnprotected vaginal sexUnprotected oral sexIV drug useFrom an infected mother to her newborn during childbirth or breast-feeding
51 HIV/AIDSHIV doesn't kill anybody directly. Instead, it weakens the body's ability to fight disease.Infections which are rarely seen in those with normal immune systems are deadly to those with HIV.Weakened immune system puts you at risk for many opportunistic infectionsKaposi’s SarcomaYeast InfectionOral Ulcers
54 HIV/AIDS: TestingThe only way to know whether you are infected is to be tested for HIVYou can get tested at the doctor or find a testing site in your area
55 HIV/AIDS: Treatment There is no cure or vaccine for HIV or AIDS. There are, however, a number of drugs and combinations of drugs that allow people with HIV or AIDS to stay healthy for longer periods of time.
57 Crabs (Pubic Lice)Pubic lice are small, six-legged creatures that infect the pubic hair area and lay eggs.Causes:Sexual ActivityPhysical contact with contaminated objects such as toilet seats, sheets, and blankets.Some women have gotten pubic lice while trying on bathing suits at a store.
58 Crabs (Pubic Lice): Signs & Symptoms Eggs or actual lice may be seen in pubic hairItching in the area that is covered with pubic hairSores in the genital area due to bites and scratching
60 Crabs (Pubic Lice): Risk Factors Risk factors include:Being sexually activeHaving multiple sexual partnersHaving sexual contact with an infected personSharing bedding or clothing with an infected person
61 Crabs (Pubic Lice): Prevention Avoid sexual or intimate contact with infected people or use safe sex practicesGood personal hygieneDo not try on bathing suits without underwear
62 Crabs (Pubic Lice): Treatment Special shampoo used to kill lice
64 World’s Worst STI At your table, create the world’s worst STI What type of STI is it?What are the symptoms?How is it transmitted?How is it diagnosed?What is the treatment/cure?What is the name of the STI?Who is most likely to get it? (age, sex, geographic location, etc.)
65 How to Prevent STIsAbstinence: Only 100% guarantee that you will not become infected with an STINot from just vaginal sex, but sexual activity in general in order to be 100% protected
66 If you do decide to become sexually active, ALWAYS PROTECT YOURSELF How to Prevent STIsIf you do decide to become sexually active, ALWAYS PROTECT YOURSELFCondoms:Best way to prevent STIs if you are sexually activeGreatly reduces the risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease (although not 100% effective)Must be used properly and 100% of the time in order to be effectiveMale condoms are most often used, but if you are allergic to latex, use a female condom or a latex free male condomDemonstrate proper condom use
69 How to Prevent STIsTry to limit the amount of people you have sex with and try to chose those who also have not had sex with many other peopleCommunicate openly with your partner to see if they have been exposed to any STDI before or have had a history of IV drug use
74 STI ScreeningYou should get tested at the first sign of a problem in order to avoid serious complicationsBecause many times STIs have no symptoms, you should talk to your doctor about getting screened when you go for your check upGirls: STI exams are not a normal part of a gynecological exam. Talk to your doctor about getting tested
76 Answer the Following… When I think about STIs and HIV, I feel… My chances of keeping myself free of STIs and HIV are…I think some teens get infected with STIs because they…If I found out I had and STI or HIV, one person I could go to would be…
77 Next Class High Risk, Low Risk, No Risk Routes of Transmission Introduction to Relationships