Presentation on theme: "Definitions and IDs urbanization Enclosure Movement Cottage Industry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Definitions and IDs urbanization Enclosure Movement Cottage Industry LudditesUrbanization- migration of people from rural areas into the cities.Enclosure Movement- Some British farmers begin to fence off their farms which no longer allowed for communal use of the landCottage Industry- “Putting Out” system that allowed a merchant to contract work to people in their homesLuddites- Followers of the mythical Ned Ludd
2 Questions and Imperatives Why was the Agricultural Revolution necessary for the Industrial Revolution?Why did the Industrial Revolution take place first in England?How did the Industrial Revolution change everyday life for the people?How do technology and urbanization influence the relationship between humans and nature? (Class discussion)1)2) Economically, Britain had many investors and traders who took the risk to invest in factories. Britain at this time was very politically stable and had many natural resources available. British merchants, manufacturers etc… were given great respect in society. All of this hastened development of finance, transportation, manufacturing etc..3) More modern way of life. People lived in cities, disconnected from nature. Distinctions between home and work, rural and urban.
3 Industrial Revolution term to cover one stage of general “modernization”another aspect is urbanization, growth of cities as peoplemove from rural regions to cities to find workbest known element of that stage is invention of power-driven machinerythe industrial revolution transformed economic and social life.began in England around the 1760s (through 1850) and started to influence continental Europe after 1815.changed patterns of work (machines took over for human and animal labor)transformed social class structure and the way people thought about classaltered the international balance of political powerstandard of living became better for some people, though limited at firstnot all industries experience the technological revolution, some continued with old methods (especially on the continent) and production did not increase
5 WHY & WHERE? England’s economy expanded in the 18th century, exporting across the AtlanticEngland’s geographic position helped her,navigable water (ocean, rivers, canals)no tariffs to hinder tradeEngland’s industrial leadership was supported by her effective central bank and well-developed credit marketsEngland had stable, predictable government that encouraged personal initiative, technical change, and free marketEngland had a large working class...included hired agricultural laborers and other rural workers who were relatively mobilePopulation explosion of the 18th century (fewer deaths)Agricultural revolution
6 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION Necessary for Industrial Revolution!English farmer second to only the Dutch in productivity in 1700 and began to copy some of her methodspopulation explosion initially caused food prices to increase and large landowners profited...with their profits they could improve their situation
7 Enclosure Movement traditional “open field” agricultural policy did not allow for innovation.No fences, people shared common land for animal grazingSome British landowners put together fields and enclosedworked well for wealthier farmers, but poor farmers complained.The enclosure movement eliminated the open field systemIn some cases small farmers could not compete with the larger farmers.Some, but not all, moved to the cities to find other employment.Others did stay to work on the larger farms (wage earners).18th century did see a drop in people making their living from the land.
8 New Methods English enthusiastically continued to adopt new methods of farming as centurywent on resulting in a period of bountifulcrops and low food prices by 1760use of crop rotationdiversifying cropstrying new fertilizersdeveloping new equipment!Jethro Tull, an agricultural inventor whose ideas encouraged others to experiment with new ideaswith low food prices, families had extra money to buy shoes, clothing, toys...this created a demand for goods within the country (in addition to the demand from the outside)
9 Cottage System Population growth increased number of rural workers with little or no land.poor needed to supplement agricultural incomePeasants had always worked in their homes“Cottage System,”This system spread through the 18th century with the population growth.The “putting out” system:Merchants were the “middle men”Merchants “put out” (i.e. loaned) the raw materials used by the workersworkers produced a finished product and were paid by the pieceMerchants paid workers & sold finished product in commercial marketssome workers provided their own raw materialsin some cases, workers combined their efforts in a projectproduction system was unregulated & both sides could negotiateThis “freedom” could also create problems.
10 Finished products included houseware,clothing,musical instruments...aspecialized products (tapestries, porcelain...)textile factories grew out of the cottage systemAll members of the family helped
11 Inventions Inventions of 1700s built off of each other: “Flying Shuttle” - improved the construction of the loomwhich sped up weaving (time)Lewis Paul, 1738, tried to improve spinning aspect in same way as Kay“Water Frame” - improvement on Lewis Paul device, 1768 (Richard Arkwright, barber)“Spinning Jenny” - James Heargraves, weaver and carpenter, 1770, allowed one to spin many threads at a time, from eight up to 100 by (improved version)…20K machines (simple and inexpensive) were in use in England by 1788“Spinny Mule” - Samuel Crompton’s spin-off of the “jenny”, steam powered (1779) these inventions fed off of each other from the initial desire for cottonby the late 1830’s, cotton fabric accounted for 1/2 of all British exportsAt the same time cotton was being bought at home. It was cheap.Now even poor people could afford body linen (underwear)!
14 Sexual division of labor women and girls did the milking and spinningmen and boys did the plowing and weaving.
15 CHANGES IN TECHNOLOGY textiles (cotton primarily) mining (coal...) metal (iron...)CHANGES were the invention of new machinery Trade with other countries gave the British a taste for other goods.Trade with India provided England with cotton. They loved it. It was lighter, could be made clean by washing, and held colorful dyes.Drab wool had competition. Merchants who dealt in wool found ways to restrict cotton goods coming into the country.People still wanted cotton ==> Let’s develop ways to produce our own. Did the Textile Industry grow without support from other industries? NO!It was dependent on metals and forms of energy to create and improve new devices!!
16 Industries Coal Industry: Coal and wood were both used as energy sourcesdemand for coal increased and new methods needed to acquire more coal.They dug deeper, but ran into water problems.Steam Engine:James Watt created steam engine in 1769He later created an even more effective engine.Iron Industry:Coal could not be used in the smelting process andwood was scarce.Abraham Darby found that he could use coke (coal product)to smelt iron ore. And another improved on his process.Point: Inventions built off of each other and paralleledeach other based on need.
17 Factories “factory” is a shortened form of ‘manufactory,’ meaning ‘production by hand’concentration of workers under one roof preceded powerdriven machineryall industries affected by new factory system lead by textile industrylate 18th century factories began to rise slowly1782, Manchester had 2 cotton mills, 20 years later there were 52took money to run a factory, startup costs etc.factories found in the cities...many still desired rural lifefactories were built where there were large groups of people and people moved to new factory towns (both ways)working new machines seemed a bit scaryperiods of rural unemployment forced people to the cities to work in factoriestimes of depression, bad harvests, droughts,...forced people to the citiesnew machinery and consolidated labor increased productivity
19 A NEW WAY TO WORK time, discipline, competition someone else told you how to worklong hours, no flexibilitythere was someone to take your jobRunning machines not too difficult, no special trainingmen, women, and children worked in factories according to abilitiesorphans were forced to work as apprentices under difficult conditions (until Factory Act of 1833 limited the workday for children)Artisans???WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT CREATIVITY?? WAS IT LOST?Lives were changed dramatically, thus called a revolution.
20 WORKER PROTEST The factory changed the lives of the workers. As farmers, they worked with the rhythms of nature.They worked with the light and slept with the dark.decided to buy or not buy more land when they could afford it.They could choose crops that gave them the best yield or price.They worked as family units.They had control over their livelihood.The factory changed that.Now, someone else told them the hours they would work, when they could have a break, what job they could doIt was routine, repetitive, monotonous. (anyone ever work in a factory?)They had to follow the tempo of the machineThey felt they were treated as children.They could make no decisions concerning their work.
21 The Luddites machines caused workers to be at different social levels And it was the machinery they attempted to destroy.Sabotaged early spinning and weaving inventions.The Luddites were followers of the mythical Ned Luddprotested wage cuts (factory owners could do what they wanted) in 1811They wrecked the knitting frames.The following year, a law was passed that made machine breaking an offense punishable by hanging.This did not deter the Luddites.In fact they broadened their efforts to other types of factoriesBritish authorities called the Luddite movement an act against the governmentThe movement continued, but eventually died outProgress had won?Luddites were seen as holding back progress.Were they against the new machinery, against progress, or just against they lives changing so much?It had been an organized protest and a movement. There were worker movements in other countries as well.
22 The GREAT CHANGE FARM MACHINERY IMPROVED => FOOD PRODUCTION INCREASED =>AGRICULTURAL EFFICIENCY AIDED IN THE RISE IN BIRTH RATE =>CREATED SURPLUS LABOR AND FREED PEOPLE TO LEAVE THE LAND AND MOVE TO CITIES =>INVENTIONS (LARGER MACHINERY) PIGGY-BACKED OFF OF EARLIER INVENTIONSG.B. HAD1) PROSPEROUS FARMERS2) MOBILE LABORERS3) SKILLED ARTISANS4) READY SUPPLIES OF COAL AND IRON5) EXTENSIVE NETWORK OF TRADE6) SMALL INTERNAL DISTANCES7) RISING POPULATION8) POLITICAL STABILITYIt took decades before continental Europe could compete.
23 Industrial Revolution spreads to Europe FRANCE:world’s second leading economy, but Napoleonic times interrupted economic developmentFrance’s population grew only by 30% in the time that England’s had grown 50%Urbanization was slower in France and that kept down the demand for manufactured goodsAgricultural production developed more slowly in France, and small family farms remained common (cultural differences)For France, this began in 1815 after the Napoleonic wars; industrial production rose steadilyThe articles of Paris included gloves, umbrella, boots, furnitureGERMANY:German industrialization lagged behind Britain and FranceWhy was growth of manufacturing held back?Confederations of states, not yet unifiedTolls and customs barriers between statesMonopolies held by guilds over the production of certain productsGerman states remained generally rural; no growth in citiesEASTERN EUROPE – Much laterSPAIN – lacked navigable rivers and rail lines, therefore later
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