2 I. Four basic types of verse Accentual 重读诗The accents determine the length of the line of poetry.It can be found mainly in the works of the earlier poets, from the 8th century.Syllabic 音节诗The French developed a way of counting the number of syllables to establish the length of the lines of verse.Accentual-syllabic 重读/音节诗It came into being when the counting of accents and the counting of syllables in a line occurred ate the same time.It often rhymes; has meter and usually moves with a predictable regularity.Free verse 自由诗It has no fixed metrical pattern: it is free from counting, measuring, and meter.
3 II. Stanza Types of stanzas: Couplets 2 -line stanzas Quatrains line stanzasSextets line stanzasOctets line stanzas
5 Find the pattern U / = iambic / U = trochaic U U / = anapestic / U U = dactylic/ / U = spondaic
6 Example 1 Shall I comPARE thee TO a SUMmer’s DAY? Each pair of unstressed and stressed syllables makes up a unit called a foot. The line contains five feet in all, as shown next: 1 2 3 4 5 Shall I.|..comPARE.|..thee TO.|..a SUM.|..mer’s DAY?
7 You need to know that each pattern is a foot You need to know that each pattern is a foot! types of meter and the line length..MonometerOne Foot..DimeterTwo Feet..TrimeterThree Feet..TetrameterFour Feet..PentameterFive Feet..HexameterSix Feet..HeptameterSeven Feet..OctameterEight Feet
8 Five types of feet Iamb (Iambic) 2 Syllables Trochee(Trochaic) Unstressed + Stressed2 SyllablesTrochee(Trochaic)Stressed + UnstressedSpondee(Spondaic)Stressed + StressedAnapest(Anapestic)Unstressed+Unstressed+Stressed3 SyllablesDactyl (Dactylic)Stressed+Unstressed+Unstressed
9 Example 2 IAMBIC (U /) : That time of year thou mayst in me behold TROCHAIC (/ u):Tell me not in mournful numbersSPONDAIC (/ /):Break, break, break/ On thy cold gray stones, O Sea!Meters with three-syllable feet areANAPESTIC (u u /):And the sound of a voice that is stillDACTYLIC (/ u u):This is the forest primeval, the murmuring pines and the hemlock (a trochee replaces the final dactyl)
10 Example 3 iambic pentameter (5 iambs, 10 syllables) That time | of year | thou mayst | in me | beholdtrochaic tetrameter (4 trochees, 8 syllables)Tell me | not in | mournful | numbersanapestic trimeter (3 anapests, 9 syllables)And the sound | of a voice | that is stilldactylic hexameter (6 dactyls, 17 syllables; a trochee replaces the last dactyl)This is the | forest pri | meval, the | murmuring | pine and the | hemlocks
11 IV. RhymeRhyme is the repetition of the same or similar sounds often occurring at set intervals in a poem.Kinds of rhymeAlliterationAbout the lilting house and happy as the grass was greenAssonanceseat, weakConsonanceluck, lickHalf-rhyme (approximate rhyme)soul: oil; firth: forth; trolley: bully
12 V. Figurative Language Contrast Irony Hyperbole or overstatement UnderstatementMetonymyMetaphorSimileSynecdocheSymbolismOnomatopoeia 拟声Oxymoron 矛盾修饰法Synesthesia 通感Transferred epithet 转类形容词Allegory 寓言Apostrophe 顿呼Conceit (outrageous metaphor) 奇喻
13 Conceit: a metaphor that goes beyond the original vehicle to other tenors and vehicles.采用迥异寻常的喻旨(tenor)和喻体(vehicle)。A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning (John Donne)If they be two, they are two soAs stiff with compasses are two;Thy soul, the fixed foot, makes no showTo move, but doth, if th’ other do.And though it in the center sit,Yet when the other far doth roam,It leans and hearkens after it,And grows erect, as that comes home.
14 Oxymoron:Living death; mute cry; “no light, but darkness visible”Synesthesia (通感):It takes one of the five senses and creates a picture orimage of sensation as perceived by another.“the golden cry of the trumpet”;a fly’s “blue, uncertain stumbling buzz”Symbolism:Ocean—eternity
15 Similes and metaphors are used to make us take a closer look at a subject or to look at a subject in a new light.Symbols and allegory, in contrast, force us to look beyond the literal meaning of the poem’s statement or action.