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Energy: Forms and Changes. Nature of Energy EEnergy is all around you! You can hear energy as sound. You can see energy as light. And you can feel it.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy: Forms and Changes. Nature of Energy EEnergy is all around you! You can hear energy as sound. You can see energy as light. And you can feel it."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy: Forms and Changes

2 Nature of Energy EEnergy is all around you! You can hear energy as sound. You can see energy as light. And you can feel it as wind.

3  You use energy when you: hit a softball. lift your book bag. compress a spring.

4 Nature of Energy  Energy is involved when: a bird flies. a bomb explodes. rain falls from the sky. electricity flows in a wire.

5 Nature of Energy  What is energy that it can be involved in so many different activities? Energy can be defined as the ability to do work. If an object or organism does work (exerts a force over a distance to move an object) the object or organism uses energy.

6 Nature of Energy  Because of the direct connection between energy and work, energy is measured in the same unit as work: joules (J).  In addition to using energy to do work, objects gain energy because work is being done on them.

7 Forms of Energy  The five main forms of energy are: Heat Chemical Electromagnetic Nuclear Mechanical

8 Heat (Thermal) Energy  The internal motion of the atoms is called heat energy, because moving particles produce heat.  Heat energy can be produced by friction.  Heat energy causes changes in temperature and phase of any form of matter.

9 Chemical Energy  Chemical Energy is required to bond atoms together.  And when bonds are broken, energy is released.

10 Chemical Energy  Fuel and food are forms of stored chemical energy.

11 Electromagnetic Energy  Power lines carry electromagnetic energy into your home in the form of electricity.

12 Electromagnetic (Radiant) Energy  Light is a form of electromagnetic energy.  Each color of light (Roy G Bv) represents a different amount of electromagnetic energy.  Electromagnetic Energy is also carried by X-rays, radio waves, and laser light.

13 Nuclear Energy  The nucleus of an atom is the source of nuclear energy.

14 Nuclear Energy  When the nucleus splits (fission), nuclear energy is released in the form of heat energy and light energy.  Nuclear energy is also released when nuclei collide at high speeds and join (fuse).

15 Nuclear Energy  Nuclear energy is the most concentrated form of energy. The closest nuclear power plant to us is Plant Farley outside of Dothan, Alabama.

16 Where do we get our power


18 Group Activity: You are building a village, and you have several tasks ahead of you! You group task is to decide what kind of power supply your village will have to use. You must research all types of power facilities and decide which on will be best for your village. Your choices: coal-fired, natural gas, nuclear, hydrological, combined turbine

19 Mechanical Energy  When work is done to an object, it acquires energy. The energy it acquires is known as mechanical energy.

20 ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS A. Energy is constantly _________________ from one form to another. B. The sum of the _______________________ and __________________energy is called the ____________________________ energy (ME). 1. ME= __________ + ____________

21 Energy Conversion  Energy can be changed from one form to another. Changes in the form of energy are called energy conversions.

22 Energy conversions  All forms of energy can be converted into other forms. The sun ’ s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. Green plants convert the sun ’ s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).

23 Chemical  Heat  Mechanical

24 States of Energy  The most common energy conversion is the conversion between potential and kinetic energy.  All forms of energy can be in either of two states: Potential Kinetic

25 States of Energy: Kinetic and Potential Energy  Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion.  Potential Energy is stored energy.

26 Kinetic Energy  The energy of motion is called kinetic energy.  The faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has.  The greater the mass of a moving object, the more kinetic energy it has.  Kinetic energy depends on both mass and velocity.

27 Kinetic Energy K.E. = 1/2mv 2 What has a greater affect of kinetic energy, mass or velocity? Why?

28 Potential Energy  Potential Energy is stored energy. Stored because of the work done on it:  Stretching a rubber band.  Winding a watch.  Pulling back on a bow ’ s arrow.  Lifting a brick high in the air.

29 Potential Energy Energy stored in an object due to its position is __________________ energy (PE). a. The _______________ the object off the ground the greater the position and the ______________ the potential energy. b. The formula for potential energy is ____________________. g=9.8 m/s 2 on Earth

30 Energy Problems Example 1: What is the Kinetic Energy of a 1000 kg car moving at 30 m/s?

31 Energy Problems Example 2: What is the mass of a car moving of 10 m/s if its kinetic energy is 40,000 J?

32 Energy Problems Example 3 : How fast is a 45 kg girl running if her kinetic energy is 51 J?

33 Energy Problems Example 4: A 0.06 kg tennis ball is 2.9 m above the ground. How much potential energy does the ball have?

34 Energy Problems Example 5: How high would a 55 kg boy need to be to have 700 J of potential energy?



37 Gravitational Potential Energy  Potential energy that is dependent on height is called gravitational potential energy.

38 Potential Energy  Energy that is stored due to being stretched or compressed is called elastic potential energy.

39 Gravitational Potential Energy  A waterfall, a suspension bridge, and a falling snowflake all have gravitational potential energy.

40 Gravitational Potential Energy  If you stand on a 3-meter diving board, you have 3 times the G.P.E, than you had on a 1-meter diving board.

41 Gravitational Potential Energy  “ The bigger they are the harder they fall ” is not just a saying. It ’ s true. Objects with more mass have greater G.P.E.  The formula to find G.P.E. is G.P.E. = Weight X Height.

42 Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion Roller coasters work because of the energy that is built into the system. Initially, the cars are pulled mechanically up the tallest hill, giving them a great deal of potential energy. From that point, the conversion between potential and kinetic energy powers the cars throughout the entire ride.

43 Kinetic vs. Potential Energy At the point of maximum potential energy, the car has minimum kinetic energy.

44 Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversions  As a basketball player throws the ball into the air, various energy conversions take place.

45 Ball slows down Ball speeds up

46 The Law of Conservation of Energy  Energy can be neither created nor destroyed by ordinary means. It can only be converted from one form to another. If energy seems to disappear, then scientists look for it – leading to many important discoveries.

47 Law of Conservation of Energy  In 1905, Albert Einstein said that mass and energy can be converted into each other.  He showed that if matter is destroyed, energy is created, and if energy is destroyed mass is created. 2  E = MC

48 Vocabulary Words 44. energy 45. mechanical energy 46. heat energy 47. chemical energy 48. electromagnetic energy 49. nuclear energy 50. kinetic energy 51. potential energy 52. gravitational potential energy 53. energy conversion 54. Law of Conservation of Energy 55. Work 56. Power

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