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CHAPTER 8 EMPLOYEEBEHAVIORANDMOTIVATION © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–1 B U S 1 0 0
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–2 L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify and discuss the basic forms of behaviors that employees exhibit in organizations. 2. Describe the nature and importance of individual differences among employees. 3. Explain the meaning and importance of psychological contracts and the person-job fit in the workplace. 4. Identify and summarize the most important models and concepts of employee motivation. 5. Describe some of the strategies and techniques used by organizations to improve employee motivation.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–3 What’s in It for Me? By understanding the basic elements of this chapter, you’ll be better able to: Understand your own feelings toward your work from the perspective of an employee Understand the feelings of others toward their work from the perspective of a boss or owner
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–4 Forms of Employee Behavior Employee Behavior The pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences the organization's effectiveness
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–5 Forms of Employee Behavior (cont’d) Performance Behaviors The total set of work-related behaviors that the organization expects employees to display Organizational Citizenship The behavior of individuals who make a positive overall contribution to the organization Counterproductive Behaviors Behaviors that detract from, rather than contribute to, organizational performance
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–6 Counterproductive Behaviors Absenteeism Results in direct costs to a businessTurnover Occurs when people quit their jobs Other Behaviors Theft Sabotage Sexual and racial harassment Workplace aggression and violence
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–7 Individual Differences Among Employees Individual Differences Personal attributes that vary from one person to another—physical, psychological, and emotional Personality at Work Personality—the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–8 Individual Differences among Employees (cont’d) The “Big Five” Personality Traits Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotionality Extraversion Openness
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–9 Individual Differences among Employees (cont’d) Emotional Intelligence or Emotional Quotient The extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skills Attitudes Our beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or other people Are important because they are the mechanism through which we express our feelings
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–10 Attitudes at Work Job Satisfaction (Morale) The extent to which people have positive attitudes toward their jobs Organizational Commitment An individual's identification with the organization and its mission Promoting Satisfaction and Commitment Treat employees fairly Provide rewards and job security Allow employee participation Design interesting jobs Maintain psychological contracts
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–11 Matching People and Jobs Psychological Contract The overall set of expectations held by employees and the organization regarding what employees will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return Contributions What does each employee expect to contribute to the organization? Inducements What will the organization provide to each employee in return?
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–12 FIGURE 8.2The Psychological Contract
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–13 Matching People and Jobs (cont’d) Person-Job Fit The extent to which a person’s contributions and the organization’s inducements match one another Good person-job fit can result in higher performance and more positive attitudes A poor person-job fit can have the opposite effects
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–14 Basic Motivation Concepts and Theories Motivation The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways Approaches to Human Relations Classical theory and scientific management Early behavioral theory Contemporary motivational theories
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–15 Classical Theory Scientific Management (Frederick Taylor) Paying workers more motivates them to produce more Industrial engineering: Analyzing jobs to find better ways to perform them makes goods cheaper, creates higher profits, and allows the firm to better pay and motivate its workers
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–16 Early Behavioral Theory Hawthorne Studies Original purpose was to examine the relationship between changes in the physical environment and worker output (productivity). Hawthorne effect: Worker productivity rose in response to any management actions that workers interpreted as special attention. Other Major Motivation Theories Human Resources Model (Theories X and Y) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Model Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–17 TABLE 8.1Theory X and Theory Y
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–18 FIGURE 8.3Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–19 FIGURE 8.4Two-Factor Theory of Motivation
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–20 Contemporary Motivation Theory Expectancy Theory Suggests that people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and that they believe they have a reasonable chance—or expectancy—of obtaining Helps explain why some people do not work as hard as they can when their salaries are based purely on seniority
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–21 Contemporary Motivation Theory (cont’d) Equity Theory Employees evaluate their treatment relative to the treatment of others Inputs: Employee contributions to their jobs Outputs: What employees receive in return The perceived ratio of contribution to return determines perceived equity
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–22 Strategies and Techniques for Enhancing Motivation Reinforcement/Behavior Modification Management by Objectives Participative Management and Empowerment Job Enrichment and Job Redesign Modified Work Schedules
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–23 Reinforcement/Behavior Modification Theory Positive Reinforcement PunishmentPunishment When rewards are tied directly to performance When negative consequences are attached directly to undesirable behavior
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–24 Identifying Resources Counseling Setting Verifiable Goals and Clear Plans Meeting Management by Objectives (MBO): Collaborative Goal-setting Collaborative Goal Setting and Planning Communicating Organizational Goals and Plans Periodic Review Evaluation
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–25 Participative Management and Empowerment Increasing job satisfaction by encouraging participation Team management represents an increasing trend
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–26 Job Enrichment and Job Redesign Job Enrichment Adding one or more motivating factors to job activities (such as Adding one or more motivating factors to job activities (such as increasing responsibility or recognition) Job Redesign Designing a better fit between workers and their jobs Combining tasks Forming natural work groups Establishing client relationships
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–27 Modified Work Schedules Work-Share Programs (Job Sharing) Pros: Employees appreciate attention to their needs, company can reduce turnover and save on benefits Cons: Job-share employees generally receive fewer benefits and may be the first to be laid off Flextime Programs/Alternative Workplace Strategies Allow people to choose their work hours by adjusting a standard work schedule Telecommuting Performing job away from standard office settings
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–28 Modified Work Schedules and Alternative Workplaces Disadvantages Challenging to coordinate and manage Poor fit for some workers Lack of network and coworker contact Lack of management belief Advantages More satisfied, committed employees Reduced stress Improved productivity Less congestion
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–29 K E Y T E R M S “big five” personality traits absenteeismattitudes classical theory of motivation counterproductive behavior emotional intelligence (emotional quotient, EQ) employee behavior equity theory expectancy theory flextime programs Hawthorne effect hierarchy of human needs model individual differences job enrichment job redesign job satisfaction management by objectives (MBO) motivation organizational citizenship organizational commitment participative management and empowerment performance behaviors personality person-job fit
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.8–30 K E Y T E R M S (cont’d) positive reinforcement psychological contract punishmenttelecommuting Theory X Theory Y turnover two-factor theory work sharing (or job sharing)
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