6 Two Main Categories for Diseases CommunicablePassed from one living thing to another by pathogensbacteriavirusparasite fungiNoncommunicableCannot be transmitted by contact-Not spread from one person to anotherExplain direct and indirect contact. Explain what is meant by unhealthy choices, genetics, and environment
7 Is this a communicable or noncommunicable disease? Common coldCancerDrug addictionDiabetesThe FluHeart DiseaseHave students discuss each one and connect to a category – justifying their choiceDo not add disease examples as this will be part of the lesson Active Learning section
8 Ways Pathogens are passed Through the air (sneezing)Contaminated objects which have bacteria or viruses on door knobsPerson to Person (kissing, shaking hands)Animals (Lyme disease)Food and Water (bacteria, improper handling or preparation of foods)
9 Ways to Control Pathogens Pasteurization- use of heat to kill bacteria (Milk)Vaccines & Immunity: Vaccines are substances that help your body develop immunity to a disease(FLIP PAGE)When injected, they allow your body’s immune system to build a defense against disease.
10 Ways to Control Pathogens Immunity is resistance to a diseaseAntibiotics- substances that can kill bacteria or slow its growthViruses are not affected by antibiotics
11 Your Body’s DefensesEyes, ears, nose, mouth, and stomach- Pathogens get trapped in mucus or wax and destroyed quickly by enzymes and chemical digestion.Skin- Of the many layers of cells that create your skin, the outermost layers are dead, therefore the pathogen cannot find a live cell to infect.
12 Your Body’s DefenseYour glands secrete oil onto your skin which contains chemicals that kill pathogensImmune system- An army of individual cells, tissues, and organs that work together to fight against pathogens
13 Your Body’s DefensesIf skin is burned, cut, or punctured, pathogens may enter your bodyIncreased blood flow to the injured area sends platelets that help create clots to seal the open wound.
14 Three Types of Cells in the Immune System 1. Macrophages: These cells eat microorganisms or viruses that have entered.2. T Cells: Help coordinate the immune system, helping to gather antigens (the pieces of bacteria) and produce killer T Cells which kill any cell infected with the antigens.3. B Cells: Make antibodies. These are proteins that attach to specific pathogens to destroy them.
15 Three Types of Cells in the Immune System Memory B Cells-It takes 2 weeks to make antibodies for a new pathogen.This is too long to prevent infection, therefore the first time you are infected, you get sick.Once created, when that specific pathogen enters the body again, the antibodies are sent quickly to attach to it.
16 Risk Factors for Contracting Disease Risk factor is something that increases the probability that a person will get a diseaseRisk factors include:GeneticsUnhealthy ChoicesEnvironment/Exposure to Hazardous MaterialsAgeProvide students with examples from each of the four risk factor categories.Genetics:Cultural: Examples include Sickle Cell Anemia (West African ancestry), Tay-Sachs (Ashkenazi Jewish), Cystic Fibrosis (European heritage), Thalassemia (Mediterranean ancestry), Hereditary hemochromatosis (Northern European ancestry)Down Syndrome, Parkinson’s DiseaseUnhealthy Lifestyle Choices:Examples include Alcoholism, Obesity, Cancer (liver, lung, throat), Heart Disease, High CholesterolExposure to Hazardous Materials:Examples include Skin Cancer, Chemical Poisoning (such as lead poisoning), Asthma, Lung Cancer, Malaria, Diarrhea, COPDAge:Examples include Dementia, Alzheimer’s, Arthritis, Parkinson’s, Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, Macular Degeneration (blindness), Osteoporosis
17 exposure to hazardous materials DiseaseCommunicablebacteriaStrep throatvirusMeaslesparasiteLiceNoncommunicablegeneticAllergiesexposure to hazardous materialsCancerAge-RelatedAlzheimer'sGraphic OrganizerTell students that you will be presenting information to assist them with completing this graphic organizer. Students should add information beyond what is presented
19 Fevers1. When the macrophages activate the helper T Cells, they chemically send a signal to the brain to turn up the heat.2. A slight fever helps you get better by slowing down the growth of some pathogens.3. Fevers also help the T & B Cells multiply faster.4. High fevers can cause tissue and blood vessel damage.
20 Challenges to the Immune System 1. Allergies occur when the immune system overreacts to substances (ALLERGENS) that are NOT usually dangerous to the body.a. Causes: Food, medicine, pollen, dust/dust mites, animal hair & dander, mold, grass, etc.b. Symptoms: runny nose, itchy eyes, asthma,Swollen throat, rash, hives, coughing, and sneezing.
21 Challenges to the immune system 2. Autoimmune disease is when the immune system attacks the body’s own cells.a. The system cannot tell the difference between pathogens and some body cells.b. Ex. Rheumatoid arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, Type 1 Diabetes, Lupus.
22 Cancer 1. Cancer is abnormal cell growth. a. Killer T Cells destroy this type of cell, however, sometimes the cell division gets out of the control of the immune system.b. Cancer can invade nearby tissues.c. Cancer can enter into the cardiovascular or lymphatic systems allowing it to travel to other parts of the body.d. Cancer disrupts normal activities of the organs invaded, often leading to death.1. Certain radiation or chemical drugs can kill the cancer cells or slow their growth.
23 (AIDS) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 4.(AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.HIV affects the immune system itself.It uses the helper T Cells to produce more viruses, destroying the T Cells in the process.This means the B Cells and Killer T Cells cannot be put to work by the T Cells.Without the T Cells doing their job, the immune system cannot attack HIV or other pathogens.People with AIDS don’t usually die of AIDS, but from the other diseases that they are unable to fight off without a properly working immune system.