Published byCora Berenice Robinson Modified over 7 years ago
Chapter 38 Viruses Objectives Define viruses Consider whether they are living or non-living Describe the structure of a virus List the names of the virus shapes Describe how replication occurs in viruses Explain the medical importance of viruses to humans, plants and animals.
Viruses Tiny (They are much smaller (50 times) than a bacterium.
Need Electron Microscope to see them Non Cellular (not made of cells) Cannot reproduce on their own (not alive according to our rules)
Structure of Viruses A virus consists of:
A strand of genetic material either DNA or RNA. A protein coat capsid. Viruses do not have ribosomes, mitochondria or other cell organelles.
Viruses do not respire. They cannot reproduce outside a host cell. They are obligate parasites
Viruses are not living organisms?
Non-living Possess genetic material either DNA or RNA Are non-cellular Possess a protein coat Cannot reproduce by themselves Can replicate (inside a living cell) Only have one type of nucleic acid (living things have both DNA and RNA)
RNA or DNA? Viruses with RNA Viruses with DNA
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Influenza viruses Rabies Viruses with DNA Warts Chickenpox mononucleosis
Shapes Viruses can be: Spherical Rod shaped Complex shaped
Bacteriophage A bacteriophage or phage is a virus that infects bacteria Bacteriophages are among the best studied viruses. T phage takes about 30 minutes to replicate.
Virus Replication Attachment
Proteins on the virus match up with the wall of the host cell Entry The virus forms a hole and the viral DNA is injected into the bacteria Synthesis The host DNA is switched off and the viral DNA takes over. It makes virus parts. Assembly The virus parts are put together and new viruses are made. Release The host cell bursts and releases thousands of the viruses. These move to other cells.
The chart below shows the replication of a bacteriophage
The chart below shows the replication of a bacteriophage. This virus infects bacteria. It takes about 30 minutes to complete its replication cycle.
Benefits of Viruses (need to know two harmful examples and one beneficial example of viruses)
Genetic Engineering Viruses can be used to transfer genes from one organism to another in genetic engineering. Such viruses are called vectors e.g. human insulin gene transferred into E. coli 2. Control of infections Bacteriophages may be used to control bacterial infections
Disadvantages of Viruses
1. Human Diseases Viruses cause many diseases in Humans e.g. colds, influenza, measles and cold sores 2. Plant Diseases Viruses cause many plant diseases including potato mosaic disease
Viruses can be beneficial…
Bacteriophages – attack & destroy bacteria Baculovirus – ebola-like virus that attacks insects Could use for pest control in crops Cabbage loopers eat cabbage crops Virus can kill pests in days (it’s really gross) … and then there are those that are not so good….
Control & Immunity Viruses are controlled by body’s general defence system e.g. skin Immunity to many viral infections can be produced -by vaccinations or by injecting anti-biodies into the body. Antibiotics kill bacteria and fungi but have no effect on viruses.
Interferon Interferon is a range of substances produced by virus infected cells to protect healthy cells. Interferon can be made artificially now and can be used to treat colds etc.
Viruses Enter Living Cells
Viruses enter bacterial cells by punching a hole in the cells wall and injecting its DNA
Mutating viruses Viruses can mutate when they copy the genetic material Copy something wrong Mistake proves useful More powerful virus (more infectious) Viruses don’t mutate often, except… Influenza & HIV
Retroviruses Retroviruses contain RNA instead of DNA
They have an enzyme that converts the Virus RNA to DNA HIV is a Retrovirus
Plant Diseases Caused by Viruses
Potato Mosaic Virus
HIV Virus AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by the HIV virus Effects: The virus damages the lymphocyte white blood cells making them unable to make antibnodies to fight against other diseases e.g. colds. A person suffering from AIDS is unable to fight infections and may die from diseases e.g. cancer or pneumonia. Spread: Spread through body fluids e.g. blood Unprotected sex with an infected person or drug users sharing needles Treatment: Drugs are given to slow down the progression of AIDS but there is no cure.
How Is HIV Spread? Sexual contact Sharing contaminated needles
Blood transfusions Breast feeding (mother to baby) Mother to baby during pregnancy or birth
There are approx. 14,000 new cases of HIV worldwide every day
FACTS In the US, there is better than a 1/1000 chance of contracting HIV during unprotected sex A person can be contagious for more than 10 years before any sign of the disease is apparent HIV becomes AIDS when the number of immune cells drops below a predetermined number No one dies from HIV or AIDS; people die from secondary infections (ranging from the common cold to cancer) More than 3 million people (size of Chicago) die each year There are approx. 14,000 new cases of HIV worldwide every day
2012 Q8 (Higher Level)
Solution to 2012 Q8
2012 Section C Q14C
2012 Section C Q14C Solutions
2011 Paper Section C Question 15 Part c
2011 Paper Section C Question 15 Part c Solutions
© 2023 SlidePlayer.com Inc.
All rights reserved.