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1 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions. 2 Are Viruses Living or Non-living? Most people say no! They have some properties of life but not others For example,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions. 2 Are Viruses Living or Non-living? Most people say no! They have some properties of life but not others For example,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Viruses, Viroids, and Prions

2 2 Are Viruses Living or Non-living? Most people say no! They have some properties of life but not others For example, viruses can be killed, even crystallized like table salt However, they can’t maintain a constant internal state (homeostasis) and aren’t made of cells

3 3 What are Viruses? A virus is made of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells.

4 4 Viewing Viruses Viruses are smaller than the smallest cell Measured in nanometers Viruses couldn’t be seen until the electron microscope was invented in the 20 th century

5 5 Size of Viruses

6 6 Viral Structure

7 7 Characteristics Non living structures Noncellular Have a nucleic acid core containing DNA or RNA Contain a protein coat called the capsid Capable of reproducing only when inside a HOST cell

8 8 Characteristics Some viruses are enclosed in an protective envelope Some viruses may have spikes to help attach to the host cell Most viruses infect only SPECIFIC host cells (ex. Plant viruses infect plant cells) CAPSID ENVELOPE DNA SPIKES

9 9Characteristics Outside of host cells, viruses are inactive Lack ribosomes and enzymes needed for metabolism Use the raw materials and enzymes of the host cell to be able to reproduce EBOLA VIRUS HIV VIRUS

10 10Characteristics Some viruses cause disease Smallpox, measles, mononucleosis, influenza, colds, warts, AIDS, Ebola Some viruses may cause some cancers like leukemia Virus-free cells are rare MEASLES

11 11 Herpes Virus SIMPLEX I and II

12 12 Adenovirus COMMON COLD

13 13 Influenza Virus

14 14 Chickenpox Virus

15 15 Papillomavirus – Warts!

16 16 Bacteriophages

17 17Phages Viruses that attack bacteria are called bacteriophage or just phage

18 18 Escherichia Coli Bacterium T - EVEN PHAGES ATTACK THIS BACTERIUM

19 19 Retroviruses

20 20 Characteristics of Retroviruses Contain RNA, not DNA Contain enzyme called Reverse Transcriptase When a retrovirus infects a cell, it injects its RNA and reverse transcriptase enzyme into the cytoplasm of that cell

21 21 ENZYME

22 22Retroviruses The enzyme reverse transcriptase (or RTase), produces a DNA copy of the virus’s RNA RTase

23 23 Retroviruses HIV, the AIDS virus, is a retrovirus Feline Leukemia Virus is also a retrovirus

24 24 Viral Replication

25 25 Viral Attack Humans rarely share viral diseases with other animals Eukaryotic viruses usually have protective envelopes made from the host cell membrane Once inside a cell, 2 processes may occur: the lytic cycle or the lysogenic cycle.

26 26 Lytic CycleLysogenic Cycle Virus enters cellVirus integrates its DNA into host’s DNA (prophage) Eliminates host cell’s DNA Virus replicates along with host cell’s DNA Makes copies of itselfCell may replicate many times, giving rise to host cells with a prophage Causes cell to burst (lyse)

27 27 5 Steps of Lytic Cycle 1. Attachment to the cell 2. Penetration (injection) of viral DNA or RNA 3. Replication of new viral proteins and nucleic acids 4. Assembly of the new viruses 5. Release of the new viruses into the environment (cell lyses--bursts)

28 28 The Lytic Cycle--Animation

29 29 Lysogenic Cycle Phage DNA injected into host cell Viral DNA joins host DNA forming a prophage When an activation signal occurs, the phage DNA starts replicating Viral DNA (part of prophage) may stay inactive in host cell for long periods of time Replicated during each binary fission Over time, many cells form containing the prophages

30 30 Viral Latency Some viruses have the ability to become dormant inside the cell Called latent viruses They may remain inactive for long periods of time (years) Later, they activate to produce new viruses in response to some external signal HIV and Herpes viruses are examples

31 31 Viral Latency Once a prophage cell is activated, host cell enters the lytic cell New viruses form a & the cell lyses (bursts) Virus said to be virulent (deadly) INACTIVE STAGE ACTIVE STAGE

32 32 Latency in Eukaryotes Some eukaryotic viruses remain dormant for many years in the nervous system tissues Chickenpox (caused by the virus Varicella zoster) is a childhood infection It can reappear later in life as shingles, a painful itching rash limited to small areas of the body SHINGLES

33 33 Treatment for Viral Disease

34 34 Vaccines A vaccine against a viral disease can be made from an attenuated (weakened), less virulent strain of the virus Attenuated virus is capable of stimulating an immune response and creating immunity, but not causing illness

35 35Smallpox Edward Jenner (1796) developed a smallpox vaccine using milder cowpox viruses Smallpox has been eradicated in the world today

36 36 Other Viral Treatments Interferons are naturally occurring proteins made by cells to fight viruses Antiviral drugs (AZT) Protease inhibitors – prevent capsid formation

37 37 Viroids & Prions

38 38 Viroids Small, circular RNA molecules without a protein coat Infect plants Potato famine in Ireland

39 39 Prions Prions are “infectious proteins” They are normal body proteins that get converted into prions by contact with other prion proteins They have no DNA or RNA

40 40 Prion Diseases Prions form insoluble deposits in the brain Damages nerve tissue Mad cow disease is an example People in New Guinea used to suffer from kuru, which they got from eating the brains of their enemies Other examples:Sheep scrapie and Creutzfeldt- Jacob disease

41 41

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