2 Homeostatic Imbalance Rhinitis: inflammation of the nasal mucosaCaused by cold viruses and various allergensExcessive mucus produced results in nasal congestion and postnasal dripNasal cavity infections often extend to nasolacrimal ducts and paranasal sinusesSinusitis: sinus inflammationCan cause marked changes in voice quality
3 Tracheal ObstructionLife-threatening because trachea is the only way air can enter the lungsCan suffocate if choke on a piece of foodHeimlich maneuver is a procedure in which the air in a person’s own lungs is used to “pop out” an obstructing piece of foodCracked ribs are a possibility if done incorrectlySometimes an emergency tracheostomy (surgical opening of the trachea) is done to provide an alternate route for air to reach the lungs
4 Homeostatic Imbalances Hypoxia: inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues (become cyanotic)Carbon monoxide poisoning: a type of hypoxia where carbon monoxide competes with oxygen for the same binding sites on hemoglobin; victim becomes confused and has a throbbing headache and then dies
5 Cleft Palate Genetic defect Slide 13.4bCleft PalateGenetic defectFailure of the bones forming the palate (hard and sometimes soft) to fuse mediallyResults in breathing, chewing, speaking difficultiesCleft of hard and softpalate
6 Cleft LipGenetic defectFailure of the tissue of upper lip to fuse
7 Developmental Aspects of the Respiratory System Important birth defectsCystic fibrosis – oversecretion of thick mucus clogs the respiratory systemCleft palateX-Ray of cystic fibrosis
8 Sudden Infant Death syndrome (SIDS) Apparently healthy infant stops breathing and dies during sleepSome cases are thought to be a problem of the neural respiratory control centerOne third of cases appear to be due to heart rhythm abnormalities
9 Asthma Chronic inflamed hypersensitive bronchiole passages Response to irritants with dyspnea, coughing, and wheezing
10 Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Exemplified by chronic bronchitis and emphysemaMajor causes of death and disability in the United States
11 Respiratory Disorders: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Features of these diseasesPatients almost always have a history of smokingLabored breathing (dyspnea) (“air hunger”) becomes progressively more severeCoughing and frequent pulmonary infections are commonMost victims retain carbon dioxide, are hypoxic, and have respiratory acidosisThose infected will ultimately develop respiratory failure
12 Emphysema Alveoli enlarge as adjacent chambers break through Chronic inflammation promotes lung fibrosis (less elastic)Airways collapse during expirationPatients use a large amount of energy to exhaleOverinflation of the lungs leads to a permanently expanded barrel chestCyanosis appears late in the disease (“pink puffers”)
13 Chronic BronchitisMucosa of the lower respiratory passages becomes severely inflamedMucus production increasesPooled mucus impairs ventilation and gas exchangeRisk of lung infection increasesPneumonia is commonHypoxia and cyanosis occur early (“blue bloaters”)
17 Causes and Symptoms of Lung Cancer Causes: tuberculosis, air pollution from motor vehicles, factories, etc. The most common cause is due to cigarette smoking,About 15% of all lung cancer cases are small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women, and is the most aggressive form of lung cancer.Symptoms: bloody sputum, chest pain, cough, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, weight loss, wheezing, facial swelling difficulty, and weakness.
18 Could Lung Cancer Cause Death? Lung cancer is a cause of death. The lungs fail to have the ability to exchange gasses properly, which will lead to death either due to a lack of oxygen or a build up of C02. The ventilator or intercostal muscles can fail to contract or the alveoli tissues are so damaged they can no longer perform normal gas exchange.