Presentation on theme: "Making News. Communicating news information News reporting is a genre with its own specific characteristics Its characteristics have evolved owing."— Presentation transcript:
Communicating news information News reporting is a genre with its own specific characteristics Its characteristics have evolved owing to: ●The function of newspapers: i.e. reporting information on world facts and events ●The particular type of relation with the readership ●The limitations of the medium: Constraints of time (the need to deliver information fast), space on the page, etc.
Traditional roles in the newsroom Chief reporter, journalist, subeditor and editor have rather fixed roles in news-making: ●The journalist writes the article ●The chief reporter revises and checks the article (for factual accuracy, language, etc.) ●The subeditor and editor edit the article and make decisions on the article prominence, its layout, headline and photos/pictures, its allocation in the issue, etc.
How are journalism and journalists’ practices changing?
Factors affecting the media industry Ownership Economic pressures Technological innovations Professionalization Quality of journalism Recent Changes due to: ● Mergers and acquisitions ● The Internet ● Digitalisation ● Increased media production
Media ownership Global media organizations control the majority of newspapers worldwide: ●In Britain, 8 owners dominate the national press ●In the US, 8 companies control the majority of the media ●In the world, 6 multinational companies effectively control the leading media ‘Alternative’ press, often with strong political, religious, ethnic affiliations Ownership influences media content, political stance and editorial perspective
Economic Pressures The need to make profits has a major impact on media production Advertising is a major source of profit for newspapers, hence: ●The need to sell advertising space ●The need to keep sales and circulation high ●Meeting readers’ expectations is a way to keep sales and circulation high Free papers and most Internet papers rely wholly on advertising to make profits
New Technology Some characteristics of new technology Digitalization Server-based production Non-linear editing ●Faster production process ●Automation ●Products are publishable in multiple formats
Effects on journalism Fewer journalists Less investigative journalism ●The Internet is a news-gathering tool Tighter production times More editions during the day More competition between different media (e.g. print and electronic)
Effects on journalistic practices Multi-skilling: ●Editing, video journalism ●Multimedia Time is still a constraint: ●Later deadlines but more tasks to perform ●Less time for analysis More control over the final product: ●Fewer people involved Audience feedback from interactive media
Changing audiences Audiences are no longer passive consumers ●Interactivity allows audiences to voice their opinions ●Audiences contribute to creating news products (videos, pictures, blogs, etc.) Audiences have expectations about content and formats ●Better educated, informed readers More sources of information available Less loyalty to brands
A changing profession? Journalists need to be versatile and be able to perform multiple activities ●Converging forms of news products (print, audio, television, or online) Increased workload Lack of specialisation Leading to better journalism or a threat to the profession?