Presentation on theme: "Computer Basics Computer Hardware and Software 2008-2009."— Presentation transcript:
Computer Basics Computer Hardware and Software 2008-2009
1. accepts data 2. processes data 3. produces output 4. stores results What is a computer? A computer is an electronic device that executes the instructions in a program. 1. Input 2. Processing 3. Output 4. Storage The Information Processing Cycle A computer has four functions:
Hardware Some Beginning Terms - the physical parts of the computer Software - the programs (instructions) that tell the computer what to do Data - individual facts like first name, price, quantity ordered. Computers manipulate data to create information Default - the original settings; what will happen if you don't change anything
Personal - “microcomputers” Hand-held (HPC) PDA Tablet PC Laptop/Notebook Desktop Tower Workstation
Larger Computers Mainframe Workhorse of business allows hundreds of people to work on same data at same time Supercomputers handle massive amounts of calculating. e.g weather forecasting, engineering design Server runs a network of computers PLATO at NHRHS
Networks Network consists of two or more computers (computer devices) communicating to share data and information.
Types of Networks: LAN—Local Area Network Relatively small area NHRHS, usually in one specific building WAN—Wide Area Network Typically consists many individual networks Networks that are all over Largest Example--The Internet MAN—Metropolitan Area Network Connects a particular area Ex. NHRHS and sending districts HAN – Home Area Network
Networking Computer linked together in a school or building (LAN, WAN, MAN) Connected by a server Can share information PROS: Share printer Share software (programs) Easy access within the building CONS: Slower time Server crashes VIRUS!!!!!!!!!!!! Privacy Issues – Hackers!!
Main Components Hardware System Unit Input Devices Output Devices Software Systems Software Application Software Input CPU Memory Storage Bus Output System Unit
Computer Hardware Input “READS” Input Device Hardware that allows data to be entered into the computer Input Devices Keyboard Mouse Scanner Microphone CD-ROM Digital Camera WebCam Game controller(joystick)
Computer Hardware Output “WRITES” DATA Output – information that is printed or displayed once it has been processed Display Devices - Monitor LCD – flat panel CRT Printer Nonimpact Inkjet, Laser, Photo, Color Speaker Projector
Computer Hardware Input/Output: (I/O) “READ or WRITE” Disks and Disk drives Internal (hard drives) External (floppy, CDRW) Flash Memory Cards, USB Flash Drives Modems Touch Screen Monitors ATM Machines
Computer Hardware: System Unit Case to hold electronic components of the computer used to process data Motherboard Main circuit board of the computer Holds many electronic components including: CPU, Memory, Expansion Slots, Bus CPU (microprocessor)— Central Processing Unit. “Brains of the computer” Gives computer its speed Measured in Hertz (megahertz) Bigger CPU = Faster = More $$ Intel Pentium, Intel Celeron, Intel Core Duo, Centrino AMD Memory Chips RAM System Bus, Adaptor Cards, Storage Devices Hard Drive, Sound cards, video cards, etc.
More Chips inside the box: Memory Definition: Accessible storage where computer (CPU) processes instructions, and data RAM (muscle)-Random Access Memory Temporary (unless saved) Operates only when the computer is on ROM- Read Only Memory Permanent Built in by the manufacturer POST – (Power On Self Test)
Storing Computer Data In Memory and on Disk Byte Smallest storage unit to hold 1 character (e.g. “a” “abc”) 8 bits (0 or 1) in a byte Byte Sizes Kilobyte – (KB) 1,000 bytes Megabyte – (MB) – one million bytes Gigabyte – (GB) – one billion bytes Terabyte – (TB) - ???
Types of Storage: (Secondary) Secondary Storage Used to store data not being used in memory Floppy Disk 3.5 Inches in Size Magnetic media used for storage A: Drive 1.4 MB or 1400 KB Compact Disk (CD) Round Magnetic Disk 650mb-1gb Stores 450x more info than a floppy D: Drive
Types of Storage (cont’d) C: Drive “Hard Drive” Contained in most desktop and laptop computers Non removable Mass Storage 10 GB – 200 GB – 500GB? Digital Video Disk (DVD) Similar to CD, but double sided Stores 2x as much
Types of Storage (cont.) Memory Key (USB flash, pen, thumb drive) Attaches to USB port 8mb-8gb and more? F: drive Flash Memory Cards Solid state media – no moving parts 32mb-4gb and more?
Computer Software Systems Software – Operating System Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Unix, Vista Application Software – everything else MS Word, MS Excel, MS ACCESS Business Applications Internet Browsers Games
Additional terms to know…Ports Parallel ports – printer USB Port The other port used to connect hardware to your computer Connection used most often with hardware recently
Neat Websites Computer Basics Quiz Quia Computer Basics http://www.quia.com/jg/65620.html http://www.quia.com/jg/65620.html Inside the System Unit http://www.kids-online.net/learn/c_n_l.html Computer Literacy Jan’s Illustrated Computer Literacy 101 http://www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/index.html http://www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/index.html Computer Literacy Powerpoint http://www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/lesson1- 2/lesson2-6presentation.htm http://www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/lesson1- 2/lesson2-6presentation.htm
Let’s Do It Try the Computer Basics Quiz Quia Computer Basics http://www.quia.com/jg/65620.html http://www.quia.com/jg/65620.html Inside the System Unit http://www.kids-online.net/learn/c_n_l.html Read Computer Literacy Jan’s Illustrated Computer Literacy 101 http://www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/index.html http://www.jegsworks.com/Lessons/index.html