2 ChemistryThe study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.Living and nonliving things are made of matter, chemistry affects all aspects of lifeand most natural events.
3 The reason why...creatures survive deep in the ocean where there is no lightwhy some foods taste sweetsome bittereven why there is different shampoos for dry or oily hair.chemical changes that occur in leaves can cause...?
4 Areas of study organic chemistry inorganic chemistry biochemistry analytical chemistryphysical chemistry
5 Organic Chem The study of all chemicals containing carbon. Athletes inhale chemicals developed by organic chemist to control symptoms of asthma.
6 Inorganic Chem the study of chemistry that does not contain carbon. non-livingexample: inorganic chemist might explain how lacking calcium can affect the growth and repair of bones.NOTE: there are other ways of getting calcium than drinking milk
7 Biochem the study of the processes that take place in organisms. example: how the energy used from the contraction of muscles is produced and stored.
8 Analytical chemthe area of study that focuses on the composition of matter.example: measuring the level of lead in water
9 Physical chemarea that deals with mechanism; rate and energy transfer that occur when matter undergoes a change.example: breathing during exercise.
11 Matter and Change Properties of Matter Describing matter Extensive propertiesIntensive properties
12 Extensive PropertiesMatter is anything that has mass and takes up space.Mass of an object is a measure of the amount of matter the object contains.Volume of an object is a measure of the space occupied by the object.Mass and volume are examples or extensive properties.Extensive property depends on the amount of matter in a sample.
13 Intensive Property Hardness is an example of intensive property. Intensive property depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter.
14 Identifying Substances Substance: matter that has a uniform and definite composition.Gold and copper are examples of pure substances.
15 Identifying Substances physical properties: a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition.State, color, melting point, boiling point are all physical properties.
16 States of MatterThree states of matter:SolidLiquidGasplus plasma
17 Solids Definite shape Definite volume Not easily compressed particles are packed closely together in a rigid arrangement
18 Liquids Indefinite shape Definite volume Not easily compressed particles are close together, but free to flow past one another.
19 Gas Indefinite shape Indefinite volume Easily compressed particles are relatively far apart and can move freely.
21 Plasmais a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles are ionized.Heating a gas may ionize its molecules or atoms (reduce or increase the number of electrons in them), thus turning it into a plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons or ions.Lighting is an example of plasma present on the Earth’s surface
22 Checking In On a piece of paper answer the following from page 42 2 Checking In On a piece of paper answer the following from page Section Assessment:Name two categories used to classify properties of matter.Explain why all samples of a given substance have the same intensive properties.Name three main states of matter.Describe the two categories used to classify physical changes.Which property is Table 2.1 can most easily distinguish sodium chloride from the other solids?In what way are liquids and gases alike? In what way are liquids and solids different?
24 Mixture: is a physical blend of two or more components. examples: chicken noodle soup, liquid salad dressing and air are all types of mixtures.
25 Based on the distribution of their components, mixtures can be classified as heterogeneous mixtures or as homogeneous mixtures.
26 Heterogeneous Mixture Think about chicken noodle soup...the ingredients are not evenly distributed throughout the mixture.More chicken or noodles in one spoon full than the next.Heterogeneous mixture: A mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout.
27 Homogeneous Mixture Think about olive oil and vinegar... olive oil does not like a mixture, nor does vinegar.Vinegar is a mixture of water and acetic acid, which dissolves in water.Olive oil and vinegar are homogeneous mixtures.Homogeneous mixture: is a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout.Another name is a solution.
28 Solutions Many solutions are liquids. Some gases, like air. Some solids, like stainless steel- a mixture of iron, chromium and nickel.
29 PhasePhase: is a term used to describe any part of a sample with uniform composition and properties.Homogeneous mixture- consists of a single phase.Heterogeneous mixture- consists of two or more phases.
30 Separating MixturesOn a piece of paper write down how you would separate these mixtures:In a saladIn a olive oil and vinegar mixtureand what might be a helpful tool?
31 In a salad you can remove ingredients you do not like (solid mixture). In a olive oil and vinegar mixture- decant, or pour off, the oil layer- oil floats on water.cool liquids till oil turns solid- oil freezes before vinegar.taking advantage of the differences in physical properties to separate mixtures.
32 FiltrationFiltration: is a process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogenous mixture.A colander can separate cooked pasta from the cooking water.The holes, or pours, in a coffee filter are small enough so the coffee can not go through but not small enough to retain the particles of water.
33 DistillationDistillation: a liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid.tap water is a homogeneous mixture of water and substances that dissolved in the water. One way to separate water from the other components in tap water is through distillation.
35 Elements and Compounds Element: the simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties.Examples: Oxygen and hydrogen
36 CompoundCompound: is a substance that contains two of more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion.carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen are chemically combined in the compound sucrose.
37 Can compounds can be broken down into simpler substances? Can elements?
38 Yes, compounds can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. Elements cannot!
39 Breaking down compounds Chemical change: is a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter.example: heating is one of the processes used to break down compounds into simpler substances.
40 Properties of Compounds Properties of compounds are quite different from those of their component elements.Example: Sugar is a sweet-tasting, white solid.Carbon is black, tasteless solid.Hydrogen is a gas that burns in the presence of oxygen- a colorless gas that supports burning. The product hydrogen and oxygen is water, which stops materials from burning.
41 NaCl or sodium chloride sodium and chloride sodium is soft, gray metalchlorine is a pale yellow-green poisonous gassodium chloride is a white solidthere is a change in the composition and a change in properties.
42 If the composition of a material is fixed, the material is a substance. If the composition of a material may vary, the material is a mixture.
43 What is the key difference between a substance and a solution?
44 Substance vs. solutionThe composition of a substance is fixed; the composition of a solution may vary.
45 SymbolsSymbols are used to represent elements, and chemical formulas to represent compounds.Each element is represented by a one- or two-letter chemical symbol.The first letter- always capitalized.Second letter- is lowercase.
46 Periodic TablePeriodic table: is an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups based on a set of repeating properties.Allows you to easily compare the properties of one element (or group of elements) to another element (or group of elements).
47 Each element: is identified by its symbol placed in a square. listed in order from left to right and top to bottom by atomic number, a number that is unique to each element.Shown centered above the symbol.the lightest element hydrogen (H), is in the top left corner.
48 Each horizontal row of periodic table is called a period. There are seven periods in the periodic table.Within a period, the properties of the elements vary as you move across the period.This pattern of properties repeat as you move to the next period.
49 Each vertical column of the periodic table is called a group or family. Elements within a group have similar chemical and physical properties.Each group is identified by a number and the letter A or B.
50 On a piece of paper, answer the following: How many elements are in period 2?In group 2A?
51 How many? How many elements are in period 2? 8 elements In group 2A? elements