2 A NOUN CLAUSE is a group of words with a subject and a verb
3 Like a noun . . .A noun clause can be a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition.It can come at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence.
4 You can recognize a noun clause by one of the relative pronouns or adverbs that begin the clause
5 A noun clause consists of three components: A relative pronoun or adverbA subjectA verb
6 Noun clauses function like nouns Noun clauses function like nouns. They can be: subject subject complement object object of prepositions
12 Direct (quoted) Speech vs Indirect (reported) Speech Direct speech Simple present Present progressive Simple past Present perfectIndirect speechSimple pastPast progressivePast perfect
13 Direct (quoted) speech States the exact words a speaker used. In writing, use quotation marks.John said, “ I love this class.”
14 Indirect (reported) speech Reports what a speaker said without using the exact words. There are no quotation marks.John said that he loved this class.
15 The reporting verbs say and tell are usually in the simple past for both direct and indirect speech.
16 He said, “It’s great. ” He said it was great “I’m leaving He said, “It’s great.” He said it was great “I’m leaving.” She said she was leaving “I made it.” He said that he had made it. He said to her, “I’ve never lied.” he told her that he had never lied
17 Remember to change pronouns, time and place expressions this and here in indirect speech to keep the speaker’s original meaning. Ann told Rick, “I bought this dress here.” Ann told Rick that she had bought that dress there.
18 “I’ll leave now.” “I’m going to drive” “Traffic may be bad” “She might move.” “He can help.” “They have to stay.” “You must be careful.”He said:He told me (that) He would leave then. He was going to drive Traffic may be bad she might move he could help They had to stay I must be careful
19 Some Modals change forms can – could may –might will – would have to, must – had to could, might, should, would, ought to, and had better do not change form
20 “Are you bringing any fruit into the country “Are you bringing any fruit into the country?” The customs officer asked the tourists if they were bringing any fruit into the country. “Do you have your transcripts with you?” The registrar asked me if I had my transcripts with me.
21 “Can you fix my car. ” I asked the mechanic if he could fix my car “Can you fix my car?” I asked the mechanic if he could fix my car. “Did you see the accident?” The police officer asked me if I had seen the accident.
22 “What do you want to be when you grow up “What do you want to be when you grow up?” My first grade teacher asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up.
23 Reported commands and requests Commands and requests are reported using infinitives, not noun clauses “Bring the book!” She told me to bring the book.
24 Elvis said, “I don’t know anything about music Elvis said, “I don’t know anything about music. In my line, you don’t have to”
25 Quoted speech tells who said something and what they said Quoted speech tells who said something and what they said. We use quoted speech for the exact words someone uses. We use it in novels, stories and newspaper articles.
26 When we don’t want to use the exact words someone said, we use reported speech. We use reported speech often in both speech and writing. It has a main clause and a noun clause.We use reported verbs such as say or tell.
27 Quoted speech: Muhammad Ali said, “I´m the greatest.” Repoted speech: Muhammad Ali said he was the greatest.
28 Changes in reported speech Simple presentPresent continuousSimple pastPresent perfectWillCanHave to / hadSimple pastPast continuousPast perfectWouldCouldHad to
29 Other changesThere are many possible pronoun changes in reported speech. We use the logic of each situation to decide on the changes.Bob said to Alice, “You gave me the wrong book.”Bob said to Alice she had given him the wrong book.
30 Time and place expressions can change in reported speech. nowtoday, tonightyesterdaytomorrowthis weeklast / next weektwo weeks agoherein this placethen, at that timethat day, that nightthe day beforethe next daythat weekthe week before / aftertwo weeks beforetherein that place
31 Rewrite the sentences as reported speech. Make the necessary changes. 1. I really like this house,” she said.She said she really liked that house.2. She said, “We can walk to the shops from the house.”She said they could walk to the shops from the house.3. “We have looked for a long time.”She said they had looked for a long time.4. He said, “we’re getting married next month.”He said they were getting married the following month.5. She said, “My parents saw the house yesterday.”She said her parents had seen the house the day before.6. My father said, “You have to do some work on the house.”My father said we had to do some work on the house.
32 Modal Verbs -Have to/must: You must go home early. Had to: -Can: We can make a cake together. Could: They said that we could make a cake together.-Have to/must:You must go home early.Had to:He said that you had to go home early.-May:He may not like rock music.Might:He said that he might not like rock music.
33 -Could: You could tell the truth -Could: You could tell the truth. Could: She said that you could tell the truth. -Should: : You left a hole where my heart should be. Should: He said that you left a hole where his heart should be. -Might: You might write a diary. Might: She said that you might write a diary. **Will: I will sit right beside you. Would: He said that I would sit right beside you.
34 EXERCISESExercises about Declarative Sentences with modal verbs: 1) Complete the sentences with modal verbs (Reported Speech): -She said that we (can) be better students.-They said that you (have to) do your homework.-He said that she (may) trust in you.-They said that you (could) stay here with me.-You said that I (should) leave him alone.-He said that they (might) be friendly.**She said that you (will) do something important in your life.
35 He said that his name was Somchai. REPORTED SPEECHDirect Speech:when somebody is actually speaking“My name is Somchai”Reported Speech:when you are saying what somebody else saidHe said that his name was Somchai.
36 eg: He says, “I talk.” – He says that he talks. REPORTED SPEECHReported SpeechWe use reported speech if we want to repeat something without using the speakers original words.No BackshiftIf the introductory sentence is in;simple present, we use - ‘He/she says ’present perfect, we use - ‘He/she has said . . .’future I, we use - ‘He/she will or is going to say . . .’eg: He says, “I talk.” – He says that he talks.
37 REPORTED SPEECH simple past, we use ‘He/she said . . .’ BackshiftIf the introductory sentence is in;simple past, we use ‘He/she said . . .’past perfect, ‘He/she had said . . .’future II, ‘He/she will have said . . .’conditional I, ‘He/she would say . . .’conditional II, ‘He/she would have said . . .’eg: He said, “I have spoken.” – He said that he had spoken.
38 REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH simple present simple pastsimple past orpast perfectpresent perfect or1st conditional2nd conditional
39 REPORTED SPEECH REMEMBER! Using backshift means that certain place and time expressions must also be changed.He said, “I want to go here.”He said that he wanted to go there.
40 REPORTED SPEECH Direct speech Reported speech today that day now then yesterdaythe day before….days ago….days beforelast weekthe week beforenext yearthe following yeartomorrowthe following dayheretherethisthatthesethose
41 REPORTED SPEECH EXERCISES - USING BACKSHIFT Example: She said, "I am reading."→ She said that she was reading.
42 REPORTED SPEECHThey said, "We are busy." → They said that ____________.He said, "I know a better restaurant." → He said that _____________.She said, "I woke up early." → She said that ____________.He said, "I will call her." → He said that _____________.They said, "We have just arrived." → They said that ___________.
43 REPORTED SPEECHHe said, "I will clean the car." → He said that ___________.She said, "I did not say that." → She said that __________.She said, "I don't know where you live."→ She said that __________.10. He said, "I won't tell anyone." → He said that ___________.11. We said, “There’s a party tonight.”→ They said that ___________.
44 REPORTED SPEECH EXERCISES - USING BACKSHIFT + PLACE Imagine you want to repeat sentences that you heard two weeks ago in another place. Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. Remember to change pronouns and expressions of time and place.Example:They said, "This is our book." → They said that was their book.
45 REPORTED SPEECH She said, “I’m going to the cinema next week.“ He said, "I am taking a test tomorrow." → He said ____________________.You said, "I will do this for him." → I said ___________________.She said, "I am not hungry now." → She said ___________________.They said, "We have never been here before." → They said ____________________.
46 REPORTED SPEECH 6. She said, “My friend was in Bangkok last week.“ 7. She asked me, "Where have you been?" → She asked __________________.8. He told me, "Be quiet!" → He told _____________________.9. The teacher asked, “Can you be quiet please?”→ The teacher asked __________________.10. The boy said, ”Come with me please.”→ The boy said ___________________.
47 REPORTED SPEECH EXERCISES – WITH + WITHOUT BACKSHIFT Rewrite the sentences in reported speech. Note that backshift is not necessary in all sentences.Example:She said: "I am here now." → She said that she was there then.
48 REPORTED SPEECH1. She says, "It's a nice day today." → She says ____________________.2. Last week he said, "I saw a film yesterday." → Last week he said ___________________.3. They will say, "We’ll move the table ourselves." → They will say ______________________.4. She told me, "Don't forget to buy milk." → She told me _______________________.5. She said, “Tokyo is a city in Japan." → She said _________________________.
49 REPORTED SPEECH6. He told me, "Lock the door when you are leaving." → He told me ______________________.7. When we were in Japan, we met some friends and you asked them, "What are you doing here?" → You asked them __________________.8. He would say, "I don't believe it." → He would say ____________________.9. Yesterday she asked him, "Where did you spend your holiday last year?" → She asked him ___________________.
51 COMMAND EXAMPLE INDIRECT DIRECT The teacher told me: Open your book page 65!”Siska told Manu: “give me a piece of paper”!“Ronny told him: “call me tonight!INDIRECTThe teacher told me that I should open my book page 65.Siska told Manu that he should give her a piece of paper.Ronny told him that he had to call him that night.
52 NOUN CLAUSES THAT BEGIN WITH A QUESTION WORD Information QuestionNOUN CLAUSEWhere does he lives?(c) When did they leave?(e) What did she say?(g) Why is Tom absent?(b) I don’t know where he lives.(d) Do you know when they left?*(f) Please tell me what she said?(h) I wonder why Tom is absent.Notice in the example:Usual question word order is NOT used in an noun clause:Incorrect: I know where he does live.Correct: I know where he lives.(i) Who came to class?(k) What happened?(j) I don’t know who came to class.(l) Tell me what happened.In (i) and (j): Question word order and noun clause word order are the same when the question word is used as a subject.These question words can be used to introduced a noun clause : when, why, how, who, whom, what, which, whose.
53 *A question mark is used at the end of this noun clause because the main subject and verb of the sentences (Do you know) are in question word order.Example: Do you know when they left?Do you know asks a question; when they left is a noun clause.Question noun clause = subject + verbQuestion consist of auxiliary verbNoun clause does not consist of auxiliary verb
55 Now make sentences using “if” or “whether” Now make sentences using “if” or “whether”. One student reads the question aloud. The other student makes a sentence beginning with “I wonder” or “I don’t know” and then puts the information from the question into noun clause word order.Is it going to rain next week?I wonder (I don’t know) if it’s going to rain next week.
56 If/whether Is there a test next week? I wonder (I don’t know) if there is a test next week.
57 If/whether Do we have homework today? I wonder (I don’t know) if we have homework today.
58 If/whether Did the teacher give us homework? I wonder (I don’t know) if the teacher gave us homework.
59 If/whether Did I do the work correctly? I wonder (I don’t know) if did the work correctly?
60 If/whether Did Diane grade the tests? I wonder (I don’t know) if Diane graded the tests.
61 If/whether Will we do well on the next test? I wonder (I don’t know) if we will do well on the next test.
62 If/whether Will I have time to study tonight? I wonder (I don’t know) if I will have time to study tonight.
63 If/whether Has the college raised tuition again? I wonder (I don’t know) if the college has raised tuition again.
64 If/whether Has the college decided to build another parking lot? I wonder (I don’t know) if the college has decided to build another parking lot.
65 that Statements of urgency with that: Adjectives (command) + that + simple form of the verbStatements of requests with that:Adjectives (request) + that + simple form of the verb